207
votes
92answers
18k views

Surprising identities / equations [closed]

What are some surprising equations / identities that you have seen, which you would not have expected? This could be complex numbers, trigonometric identities, combinatorial results, algebraic ...
14
votes
4answers
549 views

Large $n$ asymptotic of $\int_0^\infty \left( 1 + x/n\right)^{n-1} \exp(-x) \, \mathrm{d} x$

While thinking of 71432, I encountered the following integral: $$ \mathcal{I}_n = \int_0^\infty \left( 1 + \frac{x}{n}\right)^{n-1} \mathrm{e}^{-x} \, \mathrm{d} x $$ Eric's answer to the linked ...
14
votes
2answers
846 views

Calculate limit with summation index in formula [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Compute the limit: $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} e^{-n} \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n} \frac{n^k}{k!}$ I want to calculate the following: $$ \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} \left( ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

Partial sums of exponential series

What is known about $f(k)=\sum_{n=0}^{k-1} \frac{k^n}{n!}$ for large $k$? Obviously it is is a partial sum of the series for $e^k$ -- but this partial sum doesn't reach close to $e^k$ itself because ...
11
votes
2answers
219 views

Weird limit $\lim \limits_{n\mathop\to\infty}\frac{1}{e^n}\sum \limits_{k\mathop=0}^n\frac{n^k}{k!} $ [duplicate]

$$\lim \limits_{n\mathop\to\infty}\frac{1}{e^n}\sum \limits_{k\mathop=0}^n\frac{n^k}{k!} $$ I thought this limit was obviously $1$ at first but approximations on Mathematica tells me it's $1/2$. Why ...
10
votes
1answer
289 views

Probability and Laplace/Fourier transforms to solve limits/integrals from calculus.

I've seen in some answers in Brilliant.org to some very complicated limits and integrals that uses probabilistic arguments (Let $X$ be a random variable from $[0,1]$... some examples are in those ...
9
votes
1answer
155 views

Closed Form for $~\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}~\sqrt n\cdot(-e)^{-n}\cdot\sum\limits_{k=0}^n\frac{(-n)^k}{k!}$

$\qquad\qquad\qquad$ Does $~\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{\sqrt n}{(-e)^n}\cdot\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{(-n)^k}{k!}~$ possess a closed form expression ? Inspired by this frequently asked question, ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Limit using Poisson distribution [duplicate]

Show using the Poisson distribution that $$\lim_{n \to +\infty} e^{-n} \sum_{k=1}^{n}\frac{n^k}{k!} = \frac {1}{2}$$
8
votes
2answers
111 views

Compute the limit $\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1}{\log n}\sum_{k=1}^n\left(1-\frac{1}{n}\right)^k\frac{1}{k}$

Similar to this problem, how can one compute the following limit: $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1}{\log n}\sum_{k=1}^n\left(1-\frac{1}{n}\right)^k\frac{1}{k}\quad ?$$ Note that $$\log x = ...
8
votes
1answer
155 views

How can I compute this limit? [duplicate]

I have to compute $$ \lim_{n\to\infty} \exp(-n)\left(1+n+\frac{n^2}{2}+\ldots+\frac{n^n}{n!} \right)$$ I think the value is 1, but i don't know how to proof this. Do I have to estimate the remainder ...
6
votes
1answer
301 views

A limit involves series and factorials

Evaluate : $$\lim_{n\to \infty }\frac{n!}{{{n}^{n}}}\left( \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n}{\frac{{{n}^{k}}}{k!}-\sum\limits_{k=n+1}^{\infty }{\frac{{{n}^{k}}}{k!}}} \right)$$
6
votes
2answers
155 views

How to prove $\frac{n^n}{3n!}<\frac{e^n}{2}-\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\frac{n^k}{k!}<\frac{n^n}{2n!}$

I met this problem: prove: $\displaystyle \frac{n^n}{3n!}<\frac{e^n}{2}-\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\frac{n^k}{k!}<\frac{n^n}{2n!}$ I tried expand $e^n$ at $x=0$ then: $\displaystyle ...
6
votes
2answers
211 views

High school contest question

Some work on it reveals the possibility of using gamma function. Is there any easy way to compute it? $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\left(\frac{1}{n!} \int_0^e \log^n x \ dx\right)^n$$
6
votes
0answers
344 views

Finding $\lim_{n\to\infty} e^{-n}\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{n^k}{k!}$ if it exists [duplicate]

Does there exist the following limitation? If the answer is yes, could you show me how to find that? $$\lim_{n\to\infty} e^{-n}\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{n^k}{k!}$$ In the following, I'm going to write what ...
5
votes
2answers
159 views

Evaluate the limit $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}{\frac{n!}{n^n}\bigg(\sum_{k=0}^n{\frac{n^{k}}{k!}}-\sum_{k=n+1}^{\infty}{\frac{n^{k}}{k!}}\bigg)}$

Evaluate the limit $$ \lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}{\frac{n!}{n^{n}}\left(\sum_{k=0}^{n}{\frac{n^{k}}{k!}}-\sum_{k=n+1}^{\infty}{\frac{n^{k}}{k!}} \right)} $$ I use ...

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