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Suppose that we do not know anything about the complex analysis (numbers). In this case, how to calculate the following integral in closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\cos\;x}{1+x^2}\mathrm{d}x$$

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Complex analysis methods:… – Aryabhata Jan 20 '12 at 2:52
up vote 61 down vote accepted

This can be done by the useful technique of differentiating under the integral sign.

In fact, this is exercise 10.23 in the second edition of "Mathematical Analysis" by Tom Apostol.

Here is the brief sketch (as laid out in the exercise itself).

Let $$ F(y) = \int\limits_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin xy}{x(1+x^2)} \ dx \ \ \text{for} \quad\quad y > 0$$

Show that

$\displaystyle F''(y) - F(y) + \pi/2 = 0$ and hence deduce that $\displaystyle F(y) = \frac{\pi(1-e^{-y})}{2}$.

Use this to deduce that for $y > 0$ and $a > 0$

$$\displaystyle \int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin xy}{x(x^2 + a^2)} \ dx = \frac{\pi(1-e^{-ay})}{2a^2}$$


$$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\cos xy}{x^2 + a^2} dx = \frac{\pi e^{-ay}}{2a}$$

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How does the $\cos$ integral follow from the $\sin$ integral? – AmadeusDrZaius May 2 '14 at 14:06
@AmadeusDrZaius: Differentiate $F(y)$ (differentiate with respect to $y$ inside the integral). – Aryabhata May 7 '14 at 0:21

Since $$\frac{x}{1+x^2}=\int_{0}^{\infty}e^{-y}\sin (xy)dy,$$ we have that $$I=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\cos bx}{1+x^2}dx=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\cos bx}{x}dx\int_{0}^{\infty}e^{-y}\sin (xy)dy.$$ Changing the order of integration (which can be justified by the standard method) yields $$I=\int_{0}^{\infty}e^{-y}dy\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\sin xy}{x} \cos bx dx.$$ The calculation of the integral (a.k.a. the discontinuous Dirichlet factor) $$\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\sin xy}{x} \cos bx dx=\begin{cases}0, & 0 < y < b \\ \ \\ \pi/2, & 0 < b < y, \end{cases}$$ can be easily reduced to the calculation of the standard Dirichlet integral. Therefore, $$I=\frac{\pi}{2}\int_{b}^{\infty}e^{-y}dy=\frac{\pi}{2}e^{-b}.$$

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Very inspiring solution! I learned a lot. Thanks! – Martin Gales Nov 9 '10 at 6:10
. . . "which can be justified by the standard method" - it can be justified here, but not as routinely as you seem to suggest: the double integral does not quite converge absolutely, so Fubini is not automatic. – Noam D. Elkies Jun 24 at 6:55

These are the methods I use to evaluate $$ \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos2x}{x^2+4}\,dx $$ and post it on as a solution of similar problem. You can use the similar technique to evaluate $$ \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos x}{x^2+1}\,dx. $$

Method 1:

Consider the function $f(t)=e^{-a|t|}$, then the Fourier transform of $f(t)$ is given by $$ \begin{align} F(\omega)=\mathcal{F}[f(t)]&=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}f(t)e^{-i\omega t}\,dt\\ &=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}e^{-a|t|}e^{-i\omega t}\,dt\\ &=\int_{-\infty}^{0}e^{at}e^{-i\omega t}\,dt+\int_{0}^{\infty}e^{-at}e^{-i\omega t}\,dt\\ &=\lim_{u\to-\infty}\left. \frac{e^{(a-i\omega)t}}{a-i\omega} \right|_{t=u}^0-\lim_{v\to\infty}\left. \frac{e^{-(a+i\omega)t}}{a+i\omega} \right|_{0}^{t=v}\\ &=\frac{1}{a-i\omega}+\frac{1}{a+i\omega}\\ &=\frac{2a}{\omega^2+a^2}. \end{align} $$ Next, the inverse Fourier transform of $F(\omega)$ is $$ \begin{align} f(t)=\mathcal{F}^{-1}[F(\omega)]&=\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}F(\omega)e^{i\omega t}\,d\omega\\ e^{-a|t|}&=\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{2a}{\omega^2+a^2}e^{i\omega t}\,d\omega\\ \frac{\pi e^{-a|t|}}{a}&=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{e^{i\omega t}}{\omega^2+a^2}\,d\omega.\tag1 \end{align} $$ Now, rewrite $$ \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos2x}{x^2+4}\,dx=\frac{1}{2}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{\mathbb{Re}\left(e^{2ix}\right)}{x^2+2^2}\,dx.\tag2 $$ Comparing $(2)$ to $(1)$ yield $t=2$ and $a=2$. Thus, $$ \begin{align} \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos2x}{x^2+4}\,dx &=\frac{1}{2}\frac{\pi e^{-2\cdot|2|}}{2}\\ &=\frac{\pi}{4e^4}\\ \end{align} $$ and $$ \Large\color{blue}{\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos x}{x^2+1}\,dx=\frac{\pi}{2e}}. $$

Method 2:

Note that: $$ \int_{y=0}^\infty e^{-(x^2+4)y}\,dy=\frac{1}{x^2+4}, $$ therefore $$ \int_{x=0}^\infty\int_{y=0}^\infty e^{-(x^2+4)y}\cos2x\,dy\,dx=\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos2x}{x^2+4}\,dx $$ Rewrite $\cos2x=\Re\left(e^{-2ix}\right)$, then $$ \begin{align} \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos2x}{x^2+4}\,dx&=\int_{x=0}^\infty\int_{y=0}^\infty e^{-(x^2+4)y}\cos2x\,dy\,dx\\ &=\int_{y=0}^\infty\int_{x=0}^\infty e^{-(yx^2+2ix+4y)}\,dx\,dy\\ &=\int_{y=0}^\infty e^{-4y} \int_{x=0}^\infty e^{-(yx^2+2ix)}\,dx\,dy. \end{align} $$ In general $$ \begin{align} \int_{x=0}^\infty e^{-(ax^2+bx)}\,dx&=\int_{x=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(\left(x+\frac{b}{2a}\right)^2-\frac{b^2}{4a^2}\right)\right)\,dx\\ &=\exp\left(\frac{b^2}{4a}\right)\int_{x=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(x+\frac{b}{2a}\right)^2\right)\,dx\\ \end{align} $$ Let $u=x+\frac{b}{2a}\;\rightarrow\;du=dx$, then $$ \begin{align} \int_{x=0}^\infty e^{-(ax^2+bx)}\,dx&=\exp\left(\frac{b^2}{4a}\right)\int_{x=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(x+\frac{b}{2a}\right)^2\right)\,dx\\ &=\exp\left(\frac{b^2}{4a}\right)\int_{u=0}^\infty e^{-au^2}\,du.\\ \end{align} $$ The last form integral is Gaussian integral that equals to $\dfrac{1}{2}\sqrt{\dfrac{\pi}{a}}$. Hence $$ \int_{x=0}^\infty e^{-(ax^2+bx)}\,dx=\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}}\exp\left(\frac{b^2}{4a}\right). $$ Thus $$ \int_{x=0}^\infty e^{-(yx^2+2ix)}\,dx=\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{y}}\exp\left(\frac{(2i)^2}{4y}\right)=\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{y}}\exp\left(-\frac{1}{y}\right). $$ Next $$ \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos2x}{x^2+4}\,dx=\frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2}\int_{y=0}^\infty \frac{\exp\left(-4y-\frac{1}{y}\right)}{\sqrt{y}}\,dy. $$ In general $$ \begin{align} \int_{y=0}^\infty \frac{\exp\left(-ay-\frac{b}{y}\right)}{\sqrt{y}}\,dy&=2\int_{v=0}^\infty \exp\left(-av^2-\frac{b}{v^2}\right)\,dv\\ &=2\int_{v=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(v^2+\frac{b}{av^2}\right)\right)\,dv\\ &=2\int_{v=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(v^2-2\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}+\frac{b}{av^2}+2\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)\right)\,dv\\ &=2\int_{v=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(v-\frac{1}{v}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)^2-2\sqrt{ab}\right)\,dv\\ &=2\exp(-2\sqrt{ab})\int_{v=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(v-\frac{1}{v}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)^2\right)\,dv\\ \end{align} $$ The trick to solve the last integral is by setting $$ I=\int_{v=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(v-\frac{1}{v}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)^2\right)\,dv. $$ Let $t=-\frac{1}{v}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\;\rightarrow\;v=-\frac{1}{t}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\;\rightarrow\;dv=\frac{1}{t^2}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\,dt$, then $$ I_t=\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\int_{t=0}^\infty \frac{\exp\left(-a\left(-\frac{1}{t}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}+t\right)^2\right)}{t^2}\,dt. $$ Let $t=v\;\rightarrow\;dt=dv$, then $$ I_t=\int_{t=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(t-\frac{1}{t}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)^2\right)\,dt. $$ Adding the two $I_t$s yields $$ 2I=I_t+I_t=\int_{t=0}^\infty\left(1+\frac{1}{t^2}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)\exp\left(-a\left(t-\frac{1}{t}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)^2\right)\,dt. $$ Let $s=t-\frac{1}{t}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\;\rightarrow\;ds=\left(1+\frac{1}{t^2}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)dt$ and for $0<t<\infty$ is corresponding to $-\infty<s<\infty$, then $$ I=\frac{1}{2}\int_{s=-\infty}^\infty e^{-as^2}\,ds=\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}}. $$ Thus $$ \begin{align} \int_{y=0}^\infty \frac{\exp\left(-ay-\frac{b}{y}\right)}{\sqrt{y}}\,dy&=2\exp(-2\sqrt{ab})\int_{v=0}^\infty \exp\left(-a\left(v-\frac{1}{v}\sqrt{\frac{b}{a}}\right)^2\right)\,dv\\ &=\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{a}}e^{-2\sqrt{ab}}\\ \end{align} $$ and $$ \begin{align} \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos2x}{x^2+4}\,dx&=\frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2}\int_{y=0}^\infty \frac{\exp\left(-4y-\frac{1}{y}\right)}{\sqrt{y}}\,dy\\ &=\frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2}\cdot\sqrt{\frac{\pi}{4}}e^{-2\sqrt{4\cdot1}}\\ &=\frac{\pi}{4e^4}. \end{align} $$ Hence $$ \Large\color{blue}{\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\cos x}{x^2+1}\,dx=\frac{\pi}{2e}}. $$

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$\newcommand{\+}{^{\dagger}} \newcommand{\angles}[1]{\left\langle\, #1 \,\right\rangle} \newcommand{\braces}[1]{\left\lbrace\, #1 \,\right\rbrace} \newcommand{\bracks}[1]{\left\lbrack\, #1 \,\right\rbrack} \newcommand{\ceil}[1]{\,\left\lceil\, #1 \,\right\rceil\,} \newcommand{\dd}{{\rm d}} \newcommand{\down}{\downarrow} \newcommand{\ds}[1]{\displaystyle{#1}} \newcommand{\expo}[1]{\,{\rm e}^{#1}\,} \newcommand{\fermi}{\,{\rm f}} \newcommand{\floor}[1]{\,\left\lfloor #1 \right\rfloor\,} \newcommand{\half}{{1 \over 2}} \newcommand{\ic}{{\rm i}} \newcommand{\iff}{\Longleftrightarrow} \newcommand{\imp}{\Longrightarrow} \newcommand{\isdiv}{\,\left.\right\vert\,} \newcommand{\ket}[1]{\left\vert #1\right\rangle} \newcommand{\ol}[1]{\overline{#1}} \newcommand{\pars}[1]{\left(\, #1 \,\right)} \newcommand{\partiald}[3][]{\frac{\partial^{#1} #2}{\partial #3^{#1}}} \newcommand{\pp}{{\cal P}} \newcommand{\root}[2][]{\,\sqrt[#1]{\vphantom{\large A}\,#2\,}\,} \newcommand{\sech}{\,{\rm sech}} \newcommand{\sgn}{\,{\rm sgn}} \newcommand{\totald}[3][]{\frac{{\rm d}^{#1} #2}{{\rm d} #3^{#1}}} \newcommand{\ul}[1]{\underline{#1}} \newcommand{\verts}[1]{\left\vert\, #1 \,\right\vert} \newcommand{\wt}[1]{\widetilde{#1}}$ $\ds{\int_{0}^{\infty}{\cos\pars{x} \over 1 + x^{2}}\dd x:\ {\large ?}}$

$$ \mbox{Lets}\quad\fermi\pars{\mu}\equiv \half\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}{\cos\pars{\mu x} \over 1 + x^{2}}\dd x \quad\mbox{such that}\quad \left\lbrace\begin{array}{rcl} \int_{0}^{\infty}{\cos\pars{x} \over 1 + x^{2}}\dd x & = & \fermi\pars{1} \\[1mm] \fermi\pars{0} & = & {\pi \over 2} \end{array}\right. $$ \begin{align} \fermi''\pars{\mu}& =\half\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}{-x^{2}\cos\pars{\mu x} \over 1 + x^{2}}\dd x =-\pi\,\Re\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\expo{\ic\mu x}\,{\dd x \over 2\pi} +\fermi\pars{\mu} \\[3mm]&\imp\quad\fermi''\pars{\mu} - \fermi\pars{\mu} = -\pi\,\delta\pars{\mu} \end{align}

The differential equation is equivalent to: $$\left\lbrace \begin{array}{rcl} \fermi''\pars{\mu} - \fermi\pars{\mu} = 0 & \mbox{if} & \mu \not= 0 \\[2mm] \fermi'\pars{0^{+}} - \fermi'\pars{0^{-}} & = & -\pi \end{array}\right. $$

When $\ds{\mu \not= 0}$, the solutions are linear combinations of $\ds{\expo{\pm\mu}}$. Since $\ds{\fermi\pars{0} = {\pi \over 2}}$and the solution is continuos at $\ds{\mu = 0}$ and finite, we'll get: $$ \fermi\pars{\mu} = {\pi \over 2}\,\expo{-\verts{\mu}} $$ It satisfies $\ds{\fermi'\pars{0^{+}} - \fermi'\pars{0^{-}} = \pars{-\,{\pi \over 2}} - \pars{{\pi \over 2}} = -\pi}$

$$\color{#44f}{\large \int_{0}^{\infty}{\cos\pars{x} \over 1 + x^{2}}\dd x} =\fermi\pars{1} = {\pi \over 2}\,\expo{-\verts{1}}= \color{#44f}{\large{\pi \over 2\expo{}}} $$

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The previous answer is not correct. If you use the Taylor expansion of cosine and integrate termwise you consider integrals of the following form: \begin{eqnarray} \int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{a} \ dx}{1 + x^{2}} = \tfrac{\pi}{2} \sec (\tfrac{\pi a}{2}) \end{eqnarray} which is only well-defined if $-1 < a < 1$.

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The method of brackets, which is an extension of Ramanujan's master theorem, can be used to evaluate this classic integral.

The term bracket refers to the assignment of the symbol $\langle a \rangle$ to the divergent integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} x^{a -1} \, \mathrm{d}x$.

You can read about the method in the following papers:

Definite integrals by the method of brackets. Part 1

The method of brackets. Part 2: Examples and applications

Evaluation of entries in Gradshteyn and Ryzhik employing the method of brackets

On the Method of Brackets: Rules, Examples, Interpretations and Modifications

The hypergeometric representation of the cosine function is $$ \, _0F_{1} \left(; \frac{1}{2}; - \frac{x^{2}}{4} \right) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{n}}{n!} \, \frac{\Gamma \left( \frac{1}{2} \right)}{\Gamma \left(n+\frac{1}{2} \right)} \left(\frac{x^{2}}{4} \right)^{n} = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \phi_{n} \, \frac{\Gamma \left( \frac{1}{2} \right)}{\Gamma \left(n+\frac{1}{2} \right)} \left(\frac{x^{2}}{4} \right)^{n}. $$

(This representation can be derived from the Maclaurin series of $\cos (x)$ by using the duplication formula for the gamma function).

And according to Rule 3.1 on page 8 of the first paper, the function $ \frac{1}{1+x^{2}}$ is assigned the bracket series $$\sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \sum_{m=0}^{\infty} \phi_{k,m} \, x^{2m} \langle k+m+1 \rangle. $$

(We can't simply expand $\frac{1}{1+x^{2}}$ in a Maclaurin series since the Maclaurin series of $\frac{1}{1+x^{2}}$ is only valid for $|x| <1$.)

Thus according to Definition 3.1 in the first paper, the integral $ \int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\cos x}{1+x^{2}} \, \mathrm{d}x$ is assigned the bracket series $$ \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \sum_{m=0}^{\infty} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \phi_{k,m,n} \, \frac{\Gamma \left(\frac{1}{2} \right)}{\Gamma \left(n+\frac{1}{2}\right)} \frac{1}{4^{n}} \langle k+m+1\rangle \langle 2m+2n+1 \rangle. \tag{1}$$

To evaluate $(1)$, first let $k$ be a free parameter.

The brackets then vanish if $m=-k-1$ and $n= k + \frac{1}{2}$.

So according to Rule 3.3 in the first paper, the contribution to the integral is

$$\begin{align}\frac{1}{2} \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{k}}{k!} \frac{\Gamma \left(\frac{1}{2} \right)}{\Gamma (k+1 )} \, \frac{\Gamma (k+1) \Gamma \left(-k-\frac{1}{2} \right)}{4^{k+ 1/2}} &= \frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{4} \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{k}}{k!} \frac{1}{4^{k}} \frac{\pi (-1)^{k-1} }{\Gamma \left(k + \frac{3}{2} \right)} \\ &= - \frac{\pi \sqrt{\pi} }{4} \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{k!} \frac{1}{4^{k}} \frac{2^{2(k+1)-1} \Gamma(k+1)}{ \sqrt{\pi} \, \Gamma(2k+2)} \\ &= -\frac{\pi}{2} \sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(2k+1)!} \\ &= -\frac{\pi}{2} \, \sinh (1). \end{align}$$

(I used the reflection formula for the gamma function on the first line, and then I used the duplication formula for the gamma function on the second line.)

Now let $m$ be a free parameter.

The brackets then vanish if $k = -m-1$ and $n=-m -\frac{1}{2}$.

So according to Rule 3.3, the contribution to the integral is $$ \frac{1}{2} \sum_{m=0}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{m}}{m!} \frac{\Gamma \left(\frac{1}{2} \right)}{{\color{red}{\Gamma (-m)}}} \frac{\Gamma(m+1) \Gamma \left(m+ \frac{1}{2} \right)}{4^{-m-1/2}} =0.$$

Finally let $n$ be a free parameter.

The brackets then vanish if $k = - n - \frac{1}{2}$and $m= n - \frac{1}{2}$.

So according to Rule 3.3, the contribution to the integral is

$$\begin{align}\frac{1}{2} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{n}}{n!} \frac{\Gamma \left(\frac{1}{2} \right)}{\Gamma (n + \frac{1}{2} )} \, \frac{\Gamma \left(n + \frac{1}{2} \right) \Gamma \left(\frac{1}{2}-n \right) }{4^{n}} &= \frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{n}}{n!} \frac{1}{4^{n}} \frac{\pi (-1)^{n}}{\Gamma \left(n+ \frac{1}{2} \right)} \\ &= \frac{\pi \sqrt{\pi}}{2} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} \frac{1}{4^{n}} \frac{2^{2(n+1/2)-1} \Gamma(n+1)}{\sqrt{\pi} \, \Gamma(2n+1)} \\ &= \frac{\pi}{2} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(2n)!} \\ &= \frac{\pi}{2} \, \cosh (1). \end{align}$$

Rule 3.4 in the first paper says that we should add these three contributions.

Therefore, $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\cos(x)}{1+x^{2}} \, \mathrm{d}x = - \frac{\pi}{2} \sinh(1) + 0 + \frac{\pi}{2} \cosh(1) = \frac{\pi}{2e}.$$

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Let $\lambda\in\mathbb{R}$, set $$I(\lambda)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}{\cos(\lambda x)\over x^2+1}dx$$ we use integrate by parts, writing
$$u=\frac{1}{{{x}^{2}}+1}\quad,\quad dv=\cos (\lambda x)$$ we have $$I(\lambda )=\frac{\sin (\lambda x)}{\lambda ({{x}^{2}}+1)}\left| \begin{matrix} \infty \\ -\infty \\ \end{matrix} \right.+\frac{2}{\lambda }\int_{-\infty }^{+\infty }{\frac{\sin (\lambda x)}{{{({{x}^{2}}+1)}^{2}}}}\,dx $$ as a result $$\lambda I(\lambda )=2\int_{-\infty }^{\infty }{\frac{x\sin \lambda x}{{{({{x}^{2}}+1)}^{2}}}\,}dx \,.\quad(1)$$ By differentiate with respect $\lambda$ to get $$\lambda \frac{dI}{d\lambda }+I(\lambda )=2\int_{-\infty }^{\infty }{\frac{{{x}^{2}}\cos \lambda x}{{{({{x}^{2}}+1)}^{2}}}\,}dx=\underbrace{2\int_{-\infty }^{\infty }{\frac{\cos \lambda x}{{{x}^{2}}+1}\,}dx}_{2I(\lambda )}-2\int_{-\infty }^{\infty }{\frac{\cos \lambda x}{{{({{x}^{2}}+1)}^{2}}}\,}dx$$ therefore $$\lambda \frac{dI}{d\lambda }-I(\lambda )=-2\int_{-\infty }^{\infty }{\frac{\cos \lambda x}{{{({{x}^{2}}+1)}^{2}}}\,}dx$$
and $$\lambda \frac{{{d}^{2}}I}{d{{\lambda }^{2}}}=2\int_{-\infty }^{\infty }{\frac{x\sin \lambda x}{{{({{x}^{2}}+1)}^{2}}}\,}dx.\quad(2)$$ $(1)$ and $(2)$ $$\frac{{{d}^{2}}I(\lambda)}{d{{\lambda }^{2}}}- I(\lambda )=0$$ thus $$I(\lambda)=c_1e^{\lambda}+c_2e^{-\lambda}$$ on the other hand \begin{align} & I(0)={{c}_{1}}+{{c}_{2}}=\int_{-\infty }^{+\infty }{\frac{1}{{{x}^{2}}+1}}\,dx=\pi \,\,\,\,\Rightarrow \,\,{{c}_{1}}+{{c}_{2}}=\pi \, \\ & I(\lambda )=\frac{2}{\lambda }\int_{-\infty }^{+\infty }{\frac{x\sin \lambda x}{{{({{x}^{2}}+1)}^{2}}}\,\,}dx\,\,\,\Rightarrow \,\,\underset{\lambda \to \infty }{\mathop{\lim }}\,I(\lambda )=0\,\,\,\Rightarrow \,{{c}_{1}}=0 \\ \end{align} then $$I(\lambda )=\pi {{e}^{-\lambda }}$$ set $\lambda=1$, we have $$I(1)=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}{\cos( x)\over x^2+1}dx=\frac{\pi}{e}$$ so $$\int_{0}^{\infty}{\cos( x)\over x^2+1}dx=\frac{\pi}{2e}$$

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