I've stumbled upon this exercise in algebra book, in chapter dealing with vector spaces' dimensions.
Prove that basis of the field of real numbers $\mathbb R$ as vector space over the field of rational numbers $\mathbb Q$ is not countable.
Book doesn't cover terms "countable" and "uncountable" and I'm not able to put web info about these topics into something useful for this exercise.
After receiving great answer by Asaf Karagila, which I unfortunately cannot fully comprehend, I've come with my own idea of proof.
Let's count all real numbers in this situation. We have countable basis, and any vector of vector space $\mathbb R$ can have only finite subset of coefficients in it not equal to zero. We can pick different combination of finite coefficients which will not be equal to zero with countable number of ways (Asaf Karagila's fact III). So, already we have countable number of different ways to choose single vector. But more than that, in every choosen finite set of the coefficients every one of it will be different from vector to vector. Every coefficient can be one different value taken from countable $\mathbb Q$ set, and we have finite number of coefficients for any finite set choosen earlier. To sum up, we have countable number of ways to choose set of coefficients for any vector, and finite number of countable sequent ways to choose concrete values for each coefficient in basis representation of vector. We've got Cartesian product of (finite + 1) = finite countable sets, which is countable set again (property of countable set). So, we conclude that there are countable number of different real numbers, and that's wrong, so the basis of vector space $\mathbb R$ cannot be countable.
I have very strong doubts about it though. Please correct me and point to unclear parts of it.