I note that you wrote complex differential geometry. There is a difference between complex differential and analytic geometry, the latter having much in common with algebro-geometric scheme theory. However, there is no schism between the two - if you're interested in one, you'd better learn a hell of a lot about the other.
For the former, I feel comfortable recommending:
Zheng - Complex differential geometry : A very diffeo-geometrical introduction to the subject. Does not go into extreme technical details, but does not shy away from difficulties.
Demailly - Complex analytic and differential geometry (available for free on Demailly's website) : This is where you'll find all the technical details. Amazing for a second run on the subject, trying but ultimately rewarding on the first. (Note: Demailly recommends Hörmander's book for the complex analytic technical details needed for his own.)
There are books by Werner Ballmann and Andrei Moroianu on Kähler geometry as well. Both are good. Claire Voisin's book on Hodge theory is closely related to what you want, but more algebraic. I imagine you'll also want to look through Shafarevich's books on algebraic geometry, Mumford's books on the same, and anything written by Joe Harris for motivation and examples. Then you'll want to look at Kobayashi-Nomizu as well.
The problem, as always, is that there are seven million different important things to learn. Thus it is pretty much impossible to write a textbook that trails a coherent narrative and covers all these subjects. Also, beware that a "second course" type book on complex differential geometry does, to my knowledge, not exist. The document that comes closes is perhaps Demailly's notes on applications to algebraic geometry, again available on his website.
You should probably read, or rather violently leaf through, all this all at the same time, and then go bother the local complex geometry types with silly questions. There's no better way to learn a new language than to immerse oneself in it and try to talk to the natives.
[edit:] I see I forgot to mention two things: 1. Griffiths and Harris talk about residues in their book, and 2. "quadratic differentials" is secret code for "deformation theory on Riemann surfaces". There is no introduction for beginners to deformation theory. Anyone who says otherwise is either lying or severly underestimating the technical difficulties involved.