If you've completed the equivalent of first-year University-level Calculus and want to learn more math for further studies in physics, the following might be helpful:
Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences, 3rd. by Mary L. Boas
The table of contents is here.
At the minimum you should cover this book before moving on to more advance material.
For more advance reading material / textbooks, you might find the following also useful:
How to learn math and physics by Prof. John Baez;
The Road to Reality: a complete guide to the laws of the universe by Prof. Roger Penrose, FRS
For textbook suggestions, there are many good ones available on the market, so it will depend on your own likes / dislikes and approach to learning / studying; but some of the well-known and recommended are:
A. Linear Algebra:
B. Abstract Algebra:
4. Geometry and Topology:
This is a vast area with many excellent textbooks in various sub-branches.
For basic geometry I'm not sure if any "standard" / well-known work / textbook is popular or recommended.
For General Topology (i.e. point-set):
J. Munkres, Topology, 2nd.
5. Number Theory
Many good introductory books exist, among them:
Additionally, Schaum's Outlines are excellent supplements / study aids / problems and solutions to all the above subjects.