Preamble: My previous education was focused either on classical analysis (which was given in quite old traditions, I guess) or on applied Mathematics. Since I was feeling lack of knowledge in 'modern' maths, I have some time now while doing my PhD to learn things I'm interested in by myself.
My impression is that in the last one-two centuries mathematicians put much effort to categorize their knowledge which led finally to abstract algebra and category theory. I didn't learn deeply non of these subjects so I will understand if your answer/comment will be a link to wikipedia page about category theory. I've already read it and it does not answer question. This is not a lazy interest, it is quite important for my understanding of things.
Question Description: My impression is that there are four clearly distinguishable types of mathematical structures on sets, i.e., ways of thinking of just a collection of elements as something meaningful:
Set-theoretical: relations (order, equivalence, etc.)
Algebraic: groups, algebras, fields, vector spaces etc.
Geometrical: topology, metric, smooth structure etc.
Measure-theoretical: $\sigma$-algebras, independence etc.
Some structure could be combined leading to e.g. $(1,2)$ - cosets, $(1,3)$ - quotient topology, $(2,3)$ - topological groups, $(2,4)$ - Haar measure, $(3,4)$ - Hausdorff measure etc.
I guess that any of these structures can be be restated just a relation on some set, but non-abstracted way of thinking of them is more convenient.
if my impression is right?
are there any other structures? e.g. I'm interested if there are any dynamical structures corresponding to directed graphs, Markov Chains and other dynamical systems. These objects endow state space with notions of transitivity, absorbance, recurrence equilibrium etc.