Just take the standard courses going forward:
-college (or AP) chemistry: You don't technically need this, but it is good background to some aspects of physics, especially the baby P-chem that forms most of the course.
-calc 3 (multivariable calculus)
-differential equations ("calc 4", needed for college level E&M and really key course to not freak out when you see the Schroedinger equation).
-calc-based introductory physics (mechanics and E&M, 1 sem each). Halliday and Resnick level.
-if you are a physics major, you may have a third semester, which is a survey on modern topics: QM is touched on LIGHTLY here, using the Shroedinger equation
-junior (or sophomore) level courses in mechanics and E&M. Yes, you do all over again what you just did at a survey level with H&R or Giancoli with more dedicated texts like Wangness for E&M. Lot more vector math...and kind of toughens you up for the more abstractness of QM, which can be a hassle (no pulleys or ice skaters or rockets...boo!)
-as a junior or so, if you are a physics major, you can take a 1-2 semester class that goes into more detail on QM. This is the MEDIUM touch. [if you are a chemist, it is covered in junior p-chem, with emphasis on solving the hydrogen atom only (and students are led through the steps). Material scientists usually get exposed in dept courses that are a bit more gentle than physics. Same for EE.]
-During junior year (sophomore if calc 1 and 2 done in high school), you should pick up a course in "math methods for physicists" or "engineering mathematics" (this is basically a survey of select chapters from a book like Arfken or Kreyszig: mostly classic PDEs and getting to see Yo-Bessel and Jo-Bessel, but a little linear algebra is thrown in also if you don't have requirement for a dedicated course). [This is "calc 5". A quick look at Kreyszig or Arfken will show you that there's enough in there to make a calc 6, 7, 8, etc. But you don't need all that to start really getting into QM. If you go deeper, you can always pick up the parts of those books that are needed or even go into semester long courses on some topic at a deeper level than they do. But you DON'T need a math minor before starting to get familiar with QM to at least the "medium" level.]
-If you go on to Ph.D. in physics, QM will also be revisited even HARDER in graduate level courses.
My advice to you is to not try to learn QM "perfect" the first time. By that I mean learn it rigorously. You will get more out of learning it a couple times at different levels of sophistication. Also, there are definite benefits to having dedicated math classes and math preparation, but there is also benefit to having the science classes at the same time (or shortly after) learning the relevant math. They sort of reinforce each other better...and even some more advanced math classes tend to have example problems that use simple problems of mechanics or heat transfer or the like.
It's like strength training and gymnastics: you won't go far if you try to become insanely strong for years (math) before learning gym tricks (physics). But there are some tricks you can't do without some strength. Just take things in the normal order and they will reinforce each other.
For that matter, also be open to other things. You are in 12th grade: you don't know if you want to be a Ph.D. physicist (and even there there are many, many flavors...geeks who do math and manly men who drill into concrete floors to vibration mount equipment, and make illicit taps into high voltage buswork to power their gear.) You might go into mechanical engineering or econ or chemistry or EE or do a B.S. in physics and join the nuclear navy. If you run more of a standard general course, you preserve the option of trying different things as you learn more about them.
P.s. You don't need real analysis or topology or abstract algebra or some of the more extreme math recommendations here. I get the impression some people don't read the whole question and consider even what you wrote about your background.