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So I have this proof formula for the Cumulative Distribution Function and I understand it up till the point where we see square brackets, how did those end up there and how did division ended up there????

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Thank you in advance! :)

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It's simply an application of the formula $$\sum_{j=0}^{n-1}r^j=\frac{1-r^n}{1-r}$$ for $r\neq 1$ and $n\geqslant 1$ an integer.

Indeed, $(1-r)\sum\limits_{j=0}^{n-1}r^j=\sum\limits_{j=0}^{n-1}r^j-r^{j+1}$ is a telescopic sum.

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I somewhat understand but still feel confused :( – Chris Dobkowski Jan 18 '14 at 21:20
What is confusing you? – Davide Giraudo Jan 18 '14 at 21:21
where did that formula came from? – Chris Dobkowski Jan 18 '14 at 22:03
See edit. ${}{}$ – Davide Giraudo Jan 18 '14 at 22:07
Doesn't ring a bell :( – Chris Dobkowski Jan 18 '14 at 22:34

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