The sum of a degree $n$ polynomial $f(n)$ will be a degree $n+1$ polynomial $S(n)$ for $n \geq 0$ and both polynomials can be extended (maintaining the relation $S(n)-S(n-1) = f(n)$) to negative $n$.
To verify that the formula for $\Sigma k^3$ is correct one need only test it for any 5 distinct values of $n$, but the structure of the answer can be predicted algebraically using the continuation to negative $n$.
If $S(n) = (1^3 + 2^3 + \dots n^3)$ is the polynomial that satisfies $S(n)-S(n-1) = n^3$ and $S(1)=1$, then one can calculate from that equation that $S(0)=S(-1)=0$ and $S(-n-1)=S(n)$ for all negative $n$, so that $S$ is symmetric around $-1/2$. The vanishing at 0 and -1 implies that $S(t)$ is divisible as a polynomial by $t(t+1)$. The symmetry implies that $S(t)$ is a function (necessarily a polynomial) of $t(t+1)$.
$S(t)$ being of degree 4, this means $S(n) = a (n)(n+1) + b((n^2 +n)^2$ for constants $a$ and $b$. Summation being analogous to integration (and equal to it in a suitable limit), they have to agree on highest degree terms. Here it forces $b$ to be $1/4$ to match $\int x^3 = x^4/4$. Computing the sum at a single point such as $n=1$ determines $a$, which is zero.
Similar reasoning shows that $S_k(n)$ is divisible as a polynomial by $n(n+1)$ for all $k$. For odd $k$, $S_k(n)$ is a polynomial in $n(n+1)$.