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Circle radius r

Origin (x,y)

starting point in circumference say (u,v)

I want to know the next point to be drawn on the circle circumference


I do need to draw this point by point forming arc of this circle .

Help me out of this. I have checked some post in here itself but nothing seems working for me

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What do you mean by continuous? a circumference is dense (there are infinite many points between any two points) – Kevin Dec 14 '13 at 6:42
Also, solid angle applies to a sphere (or 3D angle if that helps). On a circumference, only angle makes sense – Kevin Dec 14 '13 at 6:44
continous points i refer by integer , Not in float, So that it would be limited isnt it ? – Viswanath Lekshmanan Dec 14 '13 at 6:58
Please, update your question so that it reflects your specific needs and the progress you have made. Make sure to include that $u$, $v$, $x$, $y$ (and maybe $r$?) are integers and that you are looking for a coding approach (that's what your comments suggest) – Kevin Dec 17 '13 at 18:09

There is undoubtedly a good computationally efficient answer. This is not it. Let us suppose you are going counterclockwise. Choose a quite small angle $\theta$, maybe $\frac{1}{10}$ of a degree. You will have to experiment to see what gives smooth motion.

In principle the next point is $$(u_1,v_1)=(u\cos\theta-v\sin\theta, u\sin\theta+v\cos\theta).$$ Note that $\cos\theta$ and $\sin\theta$ can be precomputed, so the calculation is cheap. What has been done here is multiplication by a rotation matrix.

The problem is that tiny errors will accumulate. So every so often, or perhaps every time, force the point to be on the circle by computing $u_1$ as above, and letting $v_1$ be $\pm\sqrt{r^2-u_1^2}$. You will have to pick the appropriate sign, which most of the time will be the sign of $v$, but some code will have to be written for sign transitions.

But undoubtedly the problem has been solved in a more efficient way many times.

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Any way, How can we draw this based on origin? Since it is not using any origin co-ordinates – Viswanath Lekshmanan Dec 14 '13 at 7:04
I assumed the origin was at $(0,0)$. If it is at $(a,b)$, modify as follows. Let your initial point be $(p,q)$. (I am changing the name to preserve what I wrote.) Let $u=p-a$, $v=p-b$. Calculate $(u_1,v_1)$ as in the post, and let $(p_1,q_1)=(u_1+a, v_1+b)$. Then $(p_1,q_1)$ is your next point. – André Nicolas Dec 14 '13 at 7:09
Yeah, thanks @Andre, I will try it out . – Viswanath Lekshmanan Dec 14 '13 at 7:15
The method I have described will, in principle, work. However, computational efficiency is extremely important. If you don't get suitable answers on this site, you might consider asking on a computation site, where there will be real experts in game programming. – André Nicolas Dec 14 '13 at 7:18

This is one possible way of coding it. I will use the form [returns] = functionname(arguments) so that you understand what is returned and what are the arguments.

[xn, qn] = nextpoint(xc, qc, xo, r)
// xc = current point in format (x,y)
// qc = current quadrant, can take values 1,2,3, or 4
// xo = origin coordinates in format (x,y)
// r  = radius (since there aren't any specifics, I am assuming it can be non-integer)
// xn = next point
// qn = next quadrant
  if (qc == 1)  // what points might be next depending on the quadrant of the current point
    g1 = (-1, 0)
    g2 = ( 0, 1)
  else if (qc == 2)
    g1 = (-1, 0)
    g2 = ( 0,-1)
  else if (qc == 3)
    g1 = ( 1, 0)
    g2 = ( 0,-1)
  else if (qc == 4)
    g1 = ( 1, 0)
    g2 = ( 0, 1)
  g3 = g1 + g2
  g1 = xc + g1
  g2 = xc + g2
  g3 = xc + g3
  xn = from {g1,g2,g3} the one with smallest residual(gi,xo,r)
  if (xn.x == xo.x OR xn.y == xo.y)
    qn = qc + 1
    qn = qc

The idea here is to avoid expensive trigonometric functions by comparing values. The performance advantage will depend on the language and compiler you use.

For residual, you can take a measure of how close the lattice point is to the actual circumference $$r_i=|(g_i-x_o)\cdot(g_i-x_o) - r^2|$$

And you can use the previous function like

[listofpoints] = getcircumference(xo,r)
  xco = xo + (round(r),0)
  qco = 1
  [xc, qc] = nexpoint(xco, qco, xo, r)
  listofpoints = {xc}
  while (xc different from xco)
    [xc, qc] = nextpoint(xc, qc, xo, r)
    append xc to listofpoints

This worked for me in Mathematica and Matlab

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I think this is a tough method than above – Viswanath Lekshmanan Dec 18 '13 at 4:18

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