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From an answer to a previous question I learned that Peano published in Latin as long as 1889.

What was the last mathematical paper/book of recognized importance published in Latin?

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My understanding is that the last paper/book of widely recognized importance in any field was Peano's work. I don't recall where I read that though. I think that refers to the 1889 work, although later Peano would rework his "Formulario" in his Latin sine flexione. Though, of course, you don't find "research-level" articles in Latin, you can still find texts like this in Latin: – Doug Spoonwood Aug 26 '11 at 19:12
With Peano this may have been something of an affectation. Gauss' Disquisitiones Arithmeticae was in Latin and was published in or about 1800. It's probably not the last one. But I wouldn't be surprised if it's the last one that was as important as it was. – Michael Hardy Aug 26 '11 at 19:14
Tangential, but this history of Dirichlet highlights his hurdles with working in Latin. – Unreasonable Sin Aug 26 '11 at 19:26
There's an essay by Riemann from 1861: see – Robert Israel Aug 26 '11 at 21:38
I recall having read a quote in Latin concerning the equation $d^2 = 0$, arising in (co)homology; I believe it was in the preface of some Oxford or Cambridge Univ. Press work of/on Atiyah or one of his colleagues. It might not be what you're looking for, but it does indicate that some universities have written about maths in Latin as a form of "invention of tradition". – Gerben Aug 26 '11 at 23:38

Zentralblatt lets you search by language of paper where I discovered this recent example.

Schechtman, Vadim New definition of a vertex algebroid. (Definitio nova algebroidis verticiani.) (Latin) A Bernstein, Joseph (ed.) et al., Studies in Lie theory. Dedicated to A. Joseph on his sixtieth birthday. Basel: Birkhäuser. Progress in Mathematics 243, 443-494 (2006).

In the preface, the editors note that Schechtman's paper is "linguistically refreshing"!

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Here's the link: – Geremia Mar 29 '14 at 2:49
In the preface, the editors note that Schechtman's paper is "linguistically refreshing"! – They should have said linguistically reviving … – Wrzlprmft Nov 13 '15 at 7:50

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