I am taking a course on logical equations and I found this exercise while reading about proofs and how to prove a given sentence and what kind of mistakes usually occur when you are trying to prove something specific. Here is a problem:
You are asked to find the mistake in the following proofs. Each proof is given for the following statement: Prove that the sum of any two rational numbers is a rational number itself.
On the same exercise there is the following proof for the statement:
Two rational numbers sum up into a rational number when added. So if R and S are rational numbers then R+S is a rational number too. This completes the proof.
I know this proof is not correct because it is based on a fallacy of presumption.
However with this one:
Proof: We assume we have the rational numbers 1/4 and 1/2. The sum of 1/2+1/4 is 3/4 which is a rational number. This completes the proof.
I also know it's not a legit proof, I just can't figure out why.