Goursat's Lemma characterizes the subgroups of direct products. Is there a similar characterization for the subgroups of semidirect products? What about if I'm only interested in the normal subgroups?
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The short answer is that there is nothing nearly so nice as Goursat's Lemma. You can certainly reduce easily to the case where $\pi_K(H)=K$, much like you can reduce Goursat's Lemma to the case of a subdirect product, but after that it gets complicated. To give you an idea, here are three references.
A theorem of Rosenbaum (Die Untergruppen von halbdirekten Produkten, Rostock. Math. Kolloq. No. 35 (1988), 21-30) gives (from the MathScieNet Review MR991728 (90c:20032)):
The criterion was then used by Gutiérrez-Barrios to develop a criterion for a set of elements to be a normal subgroup of the semidirect product (Die Normalteiler von halbdirekten Produkten. Wiss. Z. Pädagog. Hochsch. Erfurt/Mühlhausen Math.-Natur. Reihe 25 (1989), no. 2, 108-114. MR1044548 (91b:20029))
Usenko (Subgroups of semidirect products, english translation in Ukrainian Math. J. 43 (1991), no. 7-8, 982-988 (1992), MR1148867 (92k:20045)) uses crossed homomorphisms to study subgroups of semidirect products.
While searching on the net i found this article. See whether it helps or not: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l272110h87u05667/fulltext.pdf
Thanks to Jack.