I needed to find the number of five digits numbers that are made of numbers from $0,1,2,3,4,5$ and are divisble by 3. One of the proper methods can be, that $0+1+2+3+4+5 = 15$ So we can pick out either $3$ or $0$ from this set. For picking out $0$ there are $5!$ numbers and for picking out $3$ there are $5!$ numbers $4!$ of which are 4 digit numbers, so the total number is $5!+5!-4! =216$
I tried a rough estimate before the above (correct) solution. I need your help as I think it can formalized and used as a valid argument.
There are $^6C_5\times5!=720$ total $5$-digit numbers (including $4$-digit numbers with digits from one to five) Roughly a third of them, i.e $\approx 240$ should be divisble by three. Of these, roughly a tenth $\approx 24$ should be $4$-digit and hence the answer should be close to $\approx 216$.
I thought my answer should be close plus or minus some correction as this was very rough. The initial set of numbers has only $2$ of total $6$ numbers that are divisible by $3$ and it is not uniform and does not contain all digits $0$-$9$, but I get an exact number. How do I state this more formally? I need to know this as I use these rough calculations often.
"Formal" would be an argument that would allow me to replace the "approximately equal to" symbols in the third paragraph by equality symbols.