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Let $e(n)$ be the number of partitions of $n$ with even number of even parts and let $o(n)$ denote the number of partitions with odd number of even parts. In Enumerative Combinatorics 1, it is claimed that it is easy to see that $\sum_{n \geq 0} (e(n) - o(n)) x^n = \frac{1}{(1-x) \times (1+x^2) \times (1 - x^3 ) \times (1+x^4) \times ... }$. I have been racking my head over this for the past few hours, and I can't see any light.

I noticed, that $e(n) - o(n) = 2e(n) - p(n)$ where $p(n)$ is the number of partitions of $n$, so the above claim is equivalent to showing $\sum_{ n \geq 0} e(n)x^n = \frac{1}{2} \frac{1}{(1-x)(1-x^3)(1-x^5)...}( \frac{1}{(1-x^2)(1-x^4)....} + \frac{1}{(1+x^2)(1+x^4)........})$, and similarly, it is equivalent to $\sum_{ n \geq 0} o(n)x^n = \frac{1}{2} \frac{1}{(1-x)(1-x^3)(1-x^5)...}( \frac{1}{(1-x^2)(1-x^4)....} - \frac{1}{(1+x^2)(1+x^4)........})$, but these identities appear more difficult than the original one.

Any hints and suggestions appreciated.

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up vote 4 down vote accepted

Now, $$ \frac{1}{(1-x)(1+x^2)(1-x^3)\dots} $$

$$ = (1+x+x^2+\dots)(1-x^2+x^4-\dots)(1+x^3+x^6+\dots)(1-x^4+x^8-\dots)\dots $$

Consider a term which provides a negative coefficient to $x^n$

If we pick $x^{2n_2}$ from the second term, $x^{4n_4}$ from the fourth and so on,

The coefficient of $-1$ is $$(-1)^{n_2 + n_4 + \dots}$$

this will be negative if and only if $n_2 + n_4 + \dots$ is odd which comes from $o(n)$.

The positive ones come from $e(n)$.

Thus we must have that

$$\sum (e(n) - o(n))x^n = \frac{1}{(1-x)(1+x^2)(1-x^3)\dots}$$

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very nice proof! – Arin Chaudhuri Sep 20 '10 at 4:13

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