I remember reading somewhere that base $e$ is the most "efficient" base system because of its ratio of possible characters to number length. For example, binary is "inefficient" because each represented number is very long when represented with only two digits (0 and 1). Base 10 is also considered "inefficient" because there are so many numbers to remember (0-9) even though each represented number is shorter than binary. Apparently the maximum "efficiency" occurs at base $e$. How is this possible? Can irrational bases exist? How is "efficiency" of a base numerically calculated?
First, let's specify the sources. From Wikipedia:
Then we have a longish article by Hayes in American Scientist, which I don't feel like reading. The matter boils down to: the representation of number $n$ in base $\beta$ (integer or not) takes $\approx \log n/\log \beta$ digits. If your idea of "economy" is the product of this length with $\beta$ then of course, you are going to minimize $\beta /\log \beta$ and find that the minimum is at $\beta=e$. For example, with Wolfram Alpha, which can plot this function and compute its derivative.