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I've been reading a bit about how the set of bounds changes for a set depending on what superset one works with. I considered the sets $S\subseteq T\subseteq\mathbb{Q}$ and worked out a few contrived examples:

If $S=T=$ {$x\in\mathbb{Q}\ | \ x^2\lt 2$}, so here $S$ is not bounded above in $T$, but it is bounded about in $\mathbb{Q}$, with $2$ being a possibility.

Also, if $S=$ {$x\in\mathbb{Q}\ | \ x^2\lt 1$} and $T=$ {$x\in\mathbb{Q}\ | \ x\lt 2 \ \text{and}\ x\neq 1$}, then $S$ is bounded in $T$ and $\sup_\mathbb{Q} S=1$ exists, but $\sup_T S$ does not exist.

My question is, is it possible for $S$ to be bounded in $T$ where $\sup_T S$ exists, but $\sup_\mathbb{Q} S$ does not? And moreover, can both $\sup_T S$ and $\sup_\mathbb{Q} S$ exist, but not be equal? Any example of this would be much appreciated.

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Don't forget to accept an answer for your questions if you are satisfied with them. You do not seem to have accepted any answers for any of your seven questions so far. –  Arturo Magidin Sep 10 '10 at 16:43

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up vote 5 down vote accepted

Yes, it is possible for $\sup_T(S)$ to exist, but $\sup_\mathbb{Q}(S)$ not to exist. Yes, it's possible for both to exist and be distinct.

Here is an example of the latter. Take $S=\{x\in\mathbb{Q}|0\leq x\lt 1\}$. Let $T=S\cup{{2}}$. Then $S$ is bounded above in $T$, and has a supremum, namely $2$. Indeed, for every $t\in T$, if $t\lt 2$, then there exists $s\in S$ such that $t\lt s\leq 2$, so $2$ is the supremum of $S$. And of course, the supremum of $S$ in $\mathbb{Q}$ is $1$.

For the former, take $S=\{x\in\mathbb{Q}|0\leq x \lt \sqrt{2}\}$ (or any irrational number you please), and take $T=S\cup\{2\}$ (or any number greater than $\sqrt{2}$).

In general, if you have partially ordered sets $P\subseteq Q$, and a subset $A$ of $P$, you can have that $A$ has a supremum in $P$ but not in $Q$; has a supremum in $Q$ but not in $P$; has suprema in neither; has the same supremum in both; or has suprema in both but they are distinct. The one thing you can say is that if both suprema exist, then $\sup_Q(A)\leq\sup_P(A)$. So in your situation, you do know that if they both exist you will have $\sup_{\mathbb{Q}}(S)\leq\sup_{T}(S)$, but you can have strict inequality.

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Thank you also for the examples, as well as the more general note at the end. –  yunone Sep 10 '10 at 6:38

For the first question, let $S$ be the set of all rationals less than $\pi$. Then $S$ has no least upper bound in $\mathbb{Q}$. On the other hand, if $T = S\cup {4}$, then 4 is the least upper bound of $S$ inside $T$.

For the second question, let $S$ be the set of all rationals strictly less than 1, and let $T = \mathbb{Q}\cap \left([-\infty, 1)\cup [2, \infty)\right)$. Then the least upper bound of $S$ inside $T$ is 2. But of course the least upper bound of $S$ in $\mathbb{Q}$ is 1.

This shows the answer to your second question is "Yes."

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Thank you for this example, it didn't occur to me to make a new set $T$ by taking the union of $S$ and some element larger that everything in $S$. It seems fairly simple to do now. –  yunone Sep 10 '10 at 6:36

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