I want to understand why the following is true:
Let $S \subseteq R$ be commutative rings with $1$ and assume that $R$ is finitely generated as an $S$-module by at most $k$ elements. For every maximal ideal $M$ of $S$ there are at most $k$ maximal ideals of $R$ lying over $M$.
So let $T$ be a maximal ideal of $R$ lying over $M$ then $T \cap S = M$. Now it can be shown that $R/T$ is a finitely generated $S/M$-module. Hence $R/T$ is Artinian and thus it has finitely many maximal ideals. From here I have two questions:
1) Why from this follows that there can be only finitely many $T$ lying over $M$? I suspect they are using some correspondence which I don't see.
2) Why exactly at most $k$ ?
Can you please explain?