On the surreal numbers page on Wikipedia it says:
They were introduced in Donald Knuth's 1974 book Surreal Numbers: How Two Ex-Students Turned on to Pure Mathematics and Found Total Happiness. This book is a mathematical novelette, and is notable as one of the rare cases where a new mathematical idea was first presented in a work of fiction.
I would like to know if there are more fiction books that introduced new mathematical ideas, or even if they're not fiction, just books that introduced new things without being a formal mathematics textbook. For example I know Gödel, Escher, Bach introduced a few new things about non-linear recursive functions.
Does anybody know more examples?