Take $S$ to be the set of kids who play soccer; $C$ of kids who play chess; $B$ for biking; and $J$ for jogging.
If you just add up $|S|+|C|+|J|+|B|$, then you are overcounting: any kid who likes more than one sport is getting counted as many times as there are sports he likes. So you need to compensate for that.
You can compensate for those who like exactly two sports by subtracting the six pairwise intersections: $|S\cap C|$, $|S\cap J|$, $|S\cap B|$, $|C\cap J|$, $|C\cap B|$, and $|J\cap B|$. Now, you've counted everyone who likes just one sport once, everyone who likes exactly two sports once (you counted them twice to begin with, and have subtracted them once now).
But you've overcompensated for kids who like three or more sports: for kids who like three sports, you counted them three times when you counted $|S|+|C|+|J|+|B|$, and then you subtracted them three times when you subtracted the pairwise intersections (since they are in all three pairwise intersections). For kids who like all four sports, you counted them 4 times to begin with but now you subtracted them six times... we'll deal with those later...
To compensate for kids who like exactly three sports, which you have now not counted at all, we just need to add the four 3-fold intersections; $|S\cap C\cap J|$, $|S\cap C\cap B|$, $S\cap J\cap B|$ and $|C\cap J\cap B|$. We counted them 3 times first, then subtracted them three times, now add them once. Great.
But now what about the kids who like all four sports? You counted them four times at first; then you subtracted them six times when you dealt with pairs; and now you've added them four times when you counted 3-fold intersections; that means that you've counted them 8 times and subtracted them six times, so they are still overcounted. You need to count how many kids like all four sports and subtract them to get the right total. So you need to subtract $|S\cap C\cap J\cap B|$.