Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. Join them; it only takes a minute:

Sign up
Here's how it works:
  1. Anybody can ask a question
  2. Anybody can answer
  3. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top

Let $G$ be finite group and $Aut(G)$ denote the automorphisms group of $G$.

1) If $\mid G\mid>2$ is even, then do $\mid Aut(G)\mid$ is even?

2) Do we can determine structure all finite groups such that the order of the automorphisms group is even?

I want the papers about this subject. Please Help me

share|cite|improve this question
If $C_2$ is the cyclic group of order two then $\operatorname{Aut}(C_2)$ is trivial, and so has odd order. – user1729 Apr 10 '13 at 15:59
Ok. I forgot to write that $\mid G\mid >2$. I must edit it. – maryam Apr 10 '13 at 16:02
Do we need the condition $|G|$ is even? (Interestingly, GAP says we do. Without this condition, the smallest non-trivial counterexample is of order $3^6=729$, and there's many of this order.) – Douglas S. Stones Apr 10 '13 at 16:03
More seriously, $G/Z(G)$ is a subgroup of $\operatorname{Aut}(G)$. Thus, if $G/Z(G)$ is even then so is $\operatorname{Aut}(G)$. For example, if $G$ is a non-abelian group of order $2^n$ then $\operatorname{Aut}(G)$ is even. – user1729 Apr 10 '13 at 16:03
@DouglasS.Stones: No. Take $C_3\times C_3$. – user1729 Apr 10 '13 at 16:04
up vote 7 down vote accepted

The answer to 1) is no, but it is not easy to find examples. In the paper

Dark, R. S. A complete group of odd order. Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 77 (1975), 21–28.

a group $H$ of order $3 \times 19 \times 7^{12}$ is constructed, which has trivial centre and is isomorphic to its own automorphism group. So $H \times C_2$ has even order but with odd order automorphism group.

Note that it $|G|$ is even and $|G/Z(G)|$ is odd, then $G$ is a direct product of a group of odd order and an abelian 2-group $T$, and if $|{\rm Aut}(G)|$ is odd then we must have $|T|=2$. So all examples must be similar this one (although the odd order direct factor would not necessarily have to be complete).

As for 2), that sounds as hard as determining the structure of all finite groups!

share|cite|improve this answer
The smallest examples of groups with nontrivial automorphism groups of odd order are of order $3^6$. For example, $G = \operatorname{SmallGroup}(3^6, 90)$ has an automorphism group of order $3^7$. So by your remark, $C_2 \times G$ is a smallest possible example of even order. Reference: D. MacHale and R. Sheehy, Finite groups with odd order automorphism groups, Math. Proc. R. Ir. Acad. 95A (1995), no. 2, 113–116. JSTOR – Mikko Korhonen Apr 10 '13 at 17:19

Your Answer


By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.