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I have the temperature value for one hour with 2 minutes frequency. In other words 30 measurements for 1 hour.

I have calculate the slope between first and last measurements. Consider a situation that I do not know the second and third measurements. Is it possible to calculate or estimate the second and third measurements which are sensed 2 and 4 minutes after the first measurement by using slope?

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Yes, you use the slope between the first and last points and also the coordinates $(x_0,y_0)$ of one of the two points to create a line $y-y_0=m(x-x_0)$. Think of $x$ as time. Then plug in $x=2$ and $x=4$ to get your estimates.

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