When working a bit on another question (If $a \equiv b\pmod m$, then $\gcd(a, m) = \gcd(b, m)$), I discovered the following, which seems to be valid: $$ a = b \;\;\equiv\;\; \langle \forall d :: d \mid a \;\equiv\; d \mid b \rangle $$ (Note that all variables denote natural numbers.)
I have not seen this concept before, and tentatively call it division extensionality: two natural numbers are the same iff they have the same divisors. I did not succeed in proving this. How should I go about that proof (or is the above just not true)? And what is the usual name for this concept?
Also, very likely there is some more general concept of extensionality, which also covers set extensionality. Any pointers?
Finally, I found that (if the above is true) also the following holds: $$ a = b \pmod m \;\;\Rightarrow\;\; \langle \forall d : d \mid m : d \mid a \;\equiv\; d \mid b \rangle $$ The structure of this looks a lot like the first one. How does this fit in? Is there a concept of division extensionality modulo $m$?