# Markov chain stochastic process

Can anyone help me with this question, maybe by giving a hint.

Consider a Markov chain with state space $\{0,1,2....\}$. A sequence of positive numbers $p_1,p_2,...$ is given with $\sum p_i=1$. Whenever the chain reaches 0 it chooses a new state according to the $p_i$. Whenever the chain is at a state other than $0$ it proceeds deterministically one step at a time towards $0$. Under what condition on $p_i$ is the chain positive recurrent?

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Consider a state $k$. We are interested in the first return time to this state: $$T_k = \inf\left\{ n \geqslant 1 \colon X_n = k \mid X_0 = k \right\}$$ The state $k$ is called recurrent if $\mathbb{P}\left(T_k < \infty\right) = 1$, and positive recurrent if $\mathbb{E}\left(T_k\right) < \infty$.

With $X_0=k$, the system transitions to the origin in $k$ steps with probability 1, and from there it either jumps to a state $0 \leqslant m < k$ in which case it returns to the origin and we start over again, or it jumps to a state $m \geqslant k$ in which case it returns to the state $k$.

The mean first passage time from the origin to the state $k$ is clearly $\mathbb{E}(T_k)-k$. Conditioning on whether the jump occurs to left of $k$ or not:

$$\mathbb{E}\left(T_k\right) - k = \underbrace{\sum_{m=0}^{k-1} m p_m + \left(\mathbb{E}\left(T_k\right) -k\right) \sum_{m=0}^{k-1} p_m}_{ \text{transition to } m < k} + \underbrace{\sum_{m=k}^\infty (m-k) p_m}_{\text{transition to } m\geqslant k}$$ giving: $$\mathbb{E}\left(T_k\right) \left(1-\sum_{m=0}^{k-1} p_m\right) = \sum_{m=0}^\infty m p_m \qquad \therefore \quad \mathbb{E}\left(T_k\right) = \frac{\sum_{m=0}^\infty m p_m}{\sum_{m=k}^\infty p_m}$$ Implying that any state $k$ is positive recurrent provided $$\sum_{m=0}^\infty m p_m < \infty$$ Here we assume that for all $k \geqslant 0$, $\sum_{m=k}^\infty p_m > 0$.

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Don't you also need there to be infinitely many $m$ such that $p_m>0$? Otherwise, for sufficiently large $k$, $\sum_{m=k}^\infty p_m=0$. – Ilmari Karonen Mar 2 '13 at 18:27
@IlmariKaronen Actually, if there exist $k_0$ such that $p_m=0$ for all $m \geqslant k_0$, the system is finite state space, and being irreducible all states are recurrent, and therefore positive recurrent. – Sasha Mar 2 '13 at 18:44
Only if we restrict our attention only to the states reachable from 0, which I see no good reason to do. After all, nothing in the description says that we can't start at a state $k \ge k_0$. Indeed, it explicitly defines the state space as $\{0,1,2,\dots\}=\mathbb N$. – Ilmari Karonen Mar 2 '13 at 18:53
@IlmariKaronen Yes, I agree. – Sasha Mar 2 '13 at 18:59