Basically I feel like I'm having a chicken before egg problem.
An outer measure is a set function defined on some set X with the properties that empty returns 0, of sub additivity and of monotonicity. From this outer measure we get a sigma algebra of measurable sets. On this sigma algebra the outer measure is a measure with the property of additivity for unions of disjoint sets.
But we can also define a measure , a set function, on an algebra of sets with the properties that empty returns zero and of additivity of unions of disjoint sets. Then via caratheodory construction we can make an outer measure from the measure for the whole set.
So what comes first, or does neither come first?
Note: that this all began with a sample final question that I'm still stuck on that asked "if a measure is defined on the whole power set is it also an outer measure?" Which is why I marked this as homework.
Note 2: also is the answer to the question the following: Any measure can be transformed into an outer measure via caratheodory?
Edit: deleted the bit that is talked about below