The Euclidean algorithm shows how all coprime pairs of positive integers can be uniquely obtained from the pair $(1,1)$ by applying the two operations $(a,b) \to (a+b,b)$ and $(a,b) \to (a,a+b)$.
(or speaking with rationals, all the positive rationals $x=b/a$ can be obtained from $1$ by applying the two operations $x \to x/(x+1)$ and $x \to x+1$).
Furthermore, we know that the natural density of coprime pairs among the pairs of positive integers is $6/\pi^2$.
This brings the question : do the set of all childrens of some pair $(a,b)$ have a natural density $d(a,b)$, and if so, what is it ?
Allowing to start from any pair of positive reals, we have that $d(ka,kb) = d(a,b)/k$ if those exist, which suggests that we can simply look for a function $d(1,b/a) = f(b/a)$.
We have, for symmetry reasons, $f(x) = f(1/x)/x$. We also have from the tree construction, the functional equation $f(x) = f(x+1) + f(x/(x+1))/(x+1)$.
Using the symmetry equation, we can rewrite this to get the nicer functional equation : $f(x) + f(1/x) = f(1/(x+1)) + f(x/(x+1))$.
So, is there anything interesting we can say about these functional equations ? How many continuous (or even, differentiable) solutions does the system have ? Does the density we started with have a nice closed-form expression ?