The Banach--Tarski theorem applies only in the case of three or more dimensions. In 3D, there are five regular solids, two of them being not at all obvious, and the 4D case is also interesting; but the higher-dimensional cases each yield just three "solids", only one of which isn't obvious. In dynamics, particles tend to coalesce in one or two dimensions, while in four or more dimensions they tend to disperse drearily; only in 3D do they move freely but with significant local interaction. And the Poincare conjecture proved to be much harder in the 3D case than in the others.
So the question has three parts: What other examples are there of 3D richness? Are there any underlying reasons for it? And are there fields where richness begins at a higher, but still small, number of dimensions? I would be particularly interested to learn of any theorems that hold in just a particular number (not 0, 1, or 2) of dimensions.