If $n = p$ is prime, the situation is straightforward. When $p = 2$ there are a small number of cases, and when $p > 2$ the quadratic formula holds. (Note that the quadratic formula fails when $p = 2$ because you can't divide by $2$. This is because you can't complete the square $\bmod 2$.)
If $n$ is composite, the situation is more complicated. $x$ is a solution if and only if $x$ is a solution $\bmod p^k$ for every prime power factor of $n$ by the Chinese Remainder Theorem, so in particular if, say, $n$ is a product of $k$ distinct primes there can be as many as $2^k$ solutions obtained by combining roots modulo the prime factors of $n$.
After the above step the problem reduces to the prime power case $n = p^k$. In this case the question of what solutions look like is completely answered by Hensel's lemma. Again the case $p = 2$ is special.