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Which elements x^r in cyclic group Z_k have order k? (This will be a condition involving the two positive integers r and k.)

Example given by professor:

Consider the cyclic group of order k given by Z_k = {1, x, x^2, x^3, ... , x^(k-1)}, where x^k = 1 = x^0 and where one defines

(x^i) * (x^j) := x^t, where i+j = m*k + t

for t in {0, 1, 2, ... , k-1} and m is an integer not smaller than 0 ("nonnegative"). That is, "i+j is equal to t modulo k", t is the remainder when one divides i+j by k.

The order of the element x is k since k is the least positive integer such that x raised to the power is 1. Order of the identity element isn't defined as every power is the identity.

E.g., if k = 3, then (x^2) * (x^2) = x^1 = x, while (x^1) * (x^2) = x^3 = x^0 = 1. Hence, the powers of x^2 are the same as the powers of x but in a different order. Indeed, (x^2)^2 = (x^2) * (x^2) = x and (x^2)^3 = (x^2)^2 * (x^2) = x * (x^2) = x^3 = 1 so the order of x^2 is equal to 3 which is the same as the order of x.

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Hint: in a cyclic group like $\langle\mathbb{Z}_k, + \rangle$ of order $k$, if $\gcd(k, r) = 1$, then $|x^r| = k$, $1\leq r \leq k$. Written additively, this means that in this specific group, all elements $rx$ (e.g., here $x = 1$) will have order $k$ if and only if $\gcd(r, k) = 1$. If and only if $r$ and $k$ are relatively prime.

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+1 I think it is conventionally accepted that for Abelian groups we used $rx$ instead of $x^r$. – Babak S. Feb 5 '13 at 2:44

If $\rm\,x\,$ has order $\rm\,\color{#C00}{ k}\,$ and $\rm\,r,k\,$ have a common factor $\rm\,d > 1,\,$ then $\rm\,x^r\,$ has order $\rm\, \le\color{#0A0}{k/d} < k\, $ since

$$\rm (x^r)^{\color{#0A0}{k/d}} = (x^k)^{r/d} = 1^{r/d} = 1$$

Conversely if $\rm\,r,k\,$ are coprime then $\rm\,x^r\,$ has order $\rm\,k\,$ since

$$\rm (x^r)^n = 1\iff \color{#C00}k\,|\,rn\iff k\,|\,n\ \ \ by\ Euclid's\ Lemma$$

Remark $\ $ Generally $\rm\,x^r\,$ has order $\rm\,k/gcd(r,k),\,$ by cancelling $\rm\,gcd(r,k)\,$ from above.

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