Is it generally true that if $|P(A)|=|P(B)|$ then $|A|=|B|$? Why? Thanks.
Your question is undecidable in ZFC. If you assume the generalized continuum hypothesis then what you state is true. On the other hand Easton's theorem shows that if you have a function $F$ from the regular cardinals to cardinals such that $F(\kappa)>\kappa$, $\kappa\leq\lambda\Rightarrow F(\kappa)\leq F(\lambda)$ and $cf(F(\kappa))>\kappa$ then it's consistent that $2^\kappa=F(\kappa)$. This of course shows that it's consistent that we can have two cardinals $\kappa<\lambda$ such that $2^\kappa=2^\lambda$.