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I would like to know how to choose $x$ evenly distributed points from within an n-ball. I think a formal way of defining this is that we want to choose $x$ points from within the n-ball such that we maximize the closest distance between any two points. As a result, it seems, all points should be evenly spaced and many should be located at the surface. What is an algorithm to generate such a set?

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Here is an algorithm for studying the 2D sphere to get a feel for potential theory techniques, and here is a stackoverflow thread discussing the general problem. –  Eugene Shvarts Jan 26 '13 at 1:42
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This question is almost an exact duplicate, except it's for points on the sphere instead of the ball. The answers there may still be helpful. –  Rahul Jan 26 '13 at 1:46
    
Ok, so far what I'm getting from those questions is that only approximate solutions exist for this type of problem. –  Matt Munson Jan 26 '13 at 2:03

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Suppose the closest distance between two points is $d$. This implies that $x$ spheres of radius $d/2$ centered at your points can fit inside a sphere of radius $1+d/2$ without overlapping. Equivalently, $x$ spheres of radius $d/(2+d)$ fit in a unit sphere, and maximizing $d$ is equivalent to maximizing $d/(2+d)$.

So your problem amounts to finding the densest packing of $x$ spheres in a sphere. There are some (approximate) precomputed solutions for $x\le51$ in three dimensions, but there is probably no closed-form solution in general. I guess this is not an answer to your question of what is an algorithm to generate such sets, but searching for "sphere packing algorithms" may find you some useful references.

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Cool. But what is the values of $x$ for a given value of $d$? And where did you get $1+d/2$? –  Matt Munson Jan 26 '13 at 3:18
    
@Matt: Finding the largest $x$ for a given $d$ is just as hard as finding the largest $d$ for a given $x$; as I said there is no known explicit formula. You get $1+d/2$ as follows: If a point lies within distance $1$ of the origin, then a sphere of radius $d/2$ around it may not be contained in the unit sphere around the origin, but it will be contained in a sphere of radius $1+d/2$ around the origin. –  Rahul Jan 26 '13 at 4:45
    
Ok, I see. And its 1 because we start from the unit circle, but it could actually be any positive number. Nice. –  Matt Munson Jan 26 '13 at 9:15
    
@Matt: Right, I somehow assumed you meant the unit $n$-ball in your question. It's just a matter of scaling in the end. –  Rahul Jan 26 '13 at 9:19

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