In this question, The Chaz asks whether $G\times G\cong H\times H$ implies that $G\cong H$, where $G$ and $H$ are finite abelian groups. The answer is to his question is yes, by the structure theorem for finite abelian groups, as noted in the answer by Anjan Gupta.
Even though I don't know the first thing about categories -- except for the things that I do know -- I'm wondering if and how such property could be expressed and proven in terms of universal properties, without actually manoevring inside the objects. For instance one may attempt to create a morphism $G\to H$ somehow appealing to the universal property of $\oplus$, and subsequently show this morphism is an isomorphism by chasing diagrams. But it seems likely that the existence of a structure theorem of some sort will be required.
This question may be considered trivial or weird for someone who's fluent with categories, I don't know. This topic contains quite a few references. I haven't really worked through any of them (yet) but I couldn't find anything helpful at first sight.
-- edit, So a more precise title would have been "Under what conditions that can be expressed in a universal way does $G\oplus G\cong H\oplus H$ imply $G\cong H$ ?" but I don't like long titles.
-- edit2, By the comment by Alexei Averchenko, maybe It's more natural to ask this question with the product instead of the coproduct. An answer to my question with the 'real' product would be appreciated too, obviously.