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In a paper I'm trying to understand, from a time series $x(1),x(2),\ldots,x(n)$ a new set of time series is created:

$$x^m_k=x(m),x(m+k),x(m+2k),...,x\left(m+\left[ \frac{n-m}{k}\right]k\right) \:\:\:\: ; \:\:\:\: (m=1,2,\ldots,k)$$

where the square brackets $[]$ denote "the Gauss' notation"

What does "the Gauss' notation" mean? Can someone explicitly define it please.

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The Gauss bracket is another name/notation for the floor function $\lfloor\cdot\rfloor$, i.e. $[x]=\lfloor x\rfloor$ is the greatest integer not exceeding $x$. It is also called the integer part of $x$.

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