I plan to teach two sessions of probability to 11th grade students using a deck of cards. My classes will be next week. I have already taught them the basic notions of writing sample spaces, computing conditional probabilities and so on.
The problem is that once students get 'trained' to use conditional probability, they use it all the time and do not go back to first principles. A typical example is the question: "What is the probability that the third card drawn from a pack of cards is a queen?". The interesting thing is that my untrained 9th grade cousin could answer immediately when I actually used a pack of cards to ask her the question. So that motivated me to teach a couple of classes on probability with a simple apparatus like a deck of cards.
Presently I have the following ideas:
Let us call the question 'What is the probability that the 4th card is a queen?' as THE question.
Deal 5 cards face down and ask THE question.
Now flip the third card open and ask THE question.
Now flip the flipped card and shuffle the 5 cards and place them in some order face down and ask THE question.
Now add two extra black suit cards (tell them the cards are from a black suit) from the deck to the array of five cards and ask THE question.
Now tell them that I might have lied about the suit of exactly one of the cards in the previous round and then ask THE question.
Further, I plan to do the Monty Hall puzzle and Bertrand's box problem with the pack of cards. I wanted to do a basic gambler's ruin too. But I do not know how to go about it.
My question, therefore, to the community is:
1) Would you kindly suggest interesting probability questions using a deck of cards?
2) Are there interesting questions which cannot be asked using a deck of cards? If so, what simple apparatus would I need?
P.S: Buffon's needle problem would have been a good suggestion, but the students cannot appreciate continuous sample spaces as of now. That is, I would like examples from discrete sample spaces.
Thank you :)