The derivative is the slope of the function. So if the function is $f(x)=5x-3$, then $f'(x)=5$, because the derivative is the slope of the function. Velocity is the change in position, so it's the slope of the position. Acceleration is the change in velocity, so it is the change in velocity. Since derivatives are about slope, that is how the derivative of position is velocity, and the derivative of velocity is acceleration. So if the position can be expressed with the function $f(x)=x^2 - 3x + 7$, then the derivative would be $f'(x)=2x-3$ since that is the slope of the function at any given point, and since it is the slope of the position function, it is velocity. Same for acceleration; $f"(x)=2$, which is the derivative of velocity, which makes it slope. The slope of velocity is acceleration. This is how the derivative of position is velocity and the derivative is position.
NOTE: These functions are entirely hypothetical and were created on the spur of the moment.