I have a circle of radius
r and access to a random number generator. What is a method to generate random
(x,y) values distributed along the circle's perimeter?
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The simplest method would be to generate a random angle $\theta \in [0,2\pi]$. Then convert from polar to Cartesian with $(x,y) = (r \cos \theta , r \sin \theta)$.
Note that if your random number generator returns a number $k \in [0,1]$ then $\theta = 2\pi k$.