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The $n$th Fibonacci number $F_n$ is defined as follows,$$F_1=F_2=1\mbox{ and } F_{n+2}=F_{n+1}+F_{n}\mbox{ for } n\geq 1$$ I want to know how many of the first $1000$ Fibonacci numbers are divisible by $9$ ? Is it possible to classify all Fibonacci numbers which are divisible by $9$ ?

I have searched in Google and found in an article that says every $12$th Fibonacci number is divisible by $9$ but no proof is given. Are these the only such numbers ? Any idea for the soloution would be helpful.

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The proof is easy: just calculate the fibonacci numbers mod 9. –  Chris Eagle Dec 6 '12 at 10:24
And, in the same way as the comment above you can calculate the Fibonacci numbers modulo 9 for your answer. The sequence (mod 9) will repeat in 24 steps. Google "fibonacci modulo". –  Hendrik Jan Dec 6 '12 at 10:36

2 Answers 2

up vote 11 down vote accepted

Looking at the Fibonacci numbers $\bmod\ 9$ yields $$ \color{#C00000}{0,1,}1,2,3,5,8,4,3,7,1,8,\color{#0000FF}{0,8,}\dots\tag{1} $$ Since the blue terms are the negative of the red terms, we get $$ F_{n+12}\equiv-F_n\pmod{9}\tag{2} $$ Since the only Fibonacci number in the first $12$ that is $0\bmod9$ is $F_0$, we get $$ F_n\equiv0\pmod{9}\Longleftrightarrow n\equiv0\pmod{12}\tag{3} $$ Therefore, $84$ of the first $1000$ Fibonacci numbers are divisible by $9$ if you start with $F_0$, but if you start with $F_1$, only $83$ of the first $1000$ are.

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We know from here ,here or here, $F_m\mid F_n \iff m\mid n$ or $m=2$

now $F_{12}=144$ so, $144\mid F_{12k}$ where $k$ is natural number.

As $F_{12k}\equiv 0\pmod 9$ and if $F_{12k-1}\equiv a\pmod 9, (a,9)=1$ as $(F_m,F_{m+1})=1$

So, $F_{12k+1}\equiv (a+0)\pmod 9\equiv a\cdot F_1$ $F_{12k+2}\equiv (a+a)\pmod 9\equiv a\cdot F_2 ,$ $F_{12k+3}\equiv (2a+a)\pmod 9\equiv a\cdot F_3$ and so on upto $F_{12k+11}\equiv a\cdot F_{11}$

again, $F_{12k-2}=F_{12k}-F_{12k-1}\equiv 0-a\pmod 9\equiv -a\cdot F_1,$ $F_{12k-3}\equiv -a-a\pmod 9\equiv -a\cdot F_2$ and so on upto $F_{12k-11}\equiv -a\cdot F_{10}$

As observed by Hendrik Jan, the period is $24$,

so $9\mid F_n\iff 12\mid n$

Hence, the numbers required Fibonacci number is $\lfloor \frac{1000}{12}\rfloor=83$

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I think you accidentally exchanged the sub-indices, obviously $m>n\iff F_m>F_n$. –  yo' Dec 6 '12 at 10:45
@tohecz, thanks for your observation –  lab bhattacharjee Dec 6 '12 at 10:47
@labbhattacharjee: Putting $m=12$ in your formula we have $12|n$ iff $144|F_n$, so this implies if $12|n$ then $9|F_n$. But as I want to count all the fibonacci numbers divisible by $9$, I need something like this $9|F_n$ iff $x|n$ –  pritam Dec 6 '12 at 11:00

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