I know the transpose is to swap the columns and rows of a matrix. And $A^T$$A$ is a symmetric matrix which elements are the inner product of each column of $A$. But I didn't understand the intuition of transpose. Suppose A(m x n), and A transform a vector from $\Bbb R^n$ to $\Bbb R^m$. But $A^T$ transform a vector from $\Bbb R^m$ to $\Bbb R^n$. What's the relationship between them? Could anyone please explain the relationship between $A^T$,$A$,the inner product and symmetric matrix. I think there would be a intuition explaination.
Well, $A^T$ is the adjoint matrix of $A$ with respect to the ordinary inner products, i.e. $A^T$ is the only linear mapping $B$ such that $$\langle Av,w\rangle = \langle v,Bw\rangle$$ for all $v\in\Bbb R^n$ and $w\in\Bbb R^m$. You can easily see it if you verify it on the standard bases, noting that $\langle u,e_i\rangle$ gives the $i$th coordinate of $u$.