What does "working mathematician" mean? Is this term derogatory? What properties of a "working mathematician" are considered undesirable, and what attitude contrasts them?
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The way I understand it the working mathematician is a mathematician which works, researches, publishes.
I recall seeing this mainly in the context of "Theory X for the working mathematician" which means a mathematician which is not particularly interested in X, but knowing about it could help, and would help. For example surely most mathematicians won't care about large cardinals, but if there was a method based on large cardinals which would have solved a lot of problems it would sure be nice if one knows about it even if they are not set theoretically inclined. In such case a book called "Large cardinals for the working mathematician" would be a reasonable titled book.
If I were ever called a working mathematician I'd be insulted, but then again I believe that lack of work is much harder than work. Mathematics just writes its own! :-)
The term "working mathematician" has been occasionally used to distinguish mathematicians from metamathematicians (those working in foundations, logic, philosophy, etc). This term predates Mac Lane's book on category theory. For example, it was used by Bourbaki in his 1948 ASL address Foundations of Mathematics for the Working Mathematician as well as in his Elements series. Below are some pertinent excerpts from Chapter 7 of Leo Corry's book.
See also these excerpts from Kneeebone's Mathematical Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, an introductory survey.
I was trained as a mathematician but work in industry on algorithms, usually of a probabilistic inference or machine learning flavor. I rarely publish, but for what it's worth, I still think of myself as a "working mathematician".