They are usually completely different. An idempotent function is a function $f$ for which $f(x) = f(f(x))$ for all $x$. A deterministic function is not even a proper mathematical concept, as all mathematical functions are deterministic in a sense of the common meaning of the word. Rather than the determinism of a function, one might refer to its decidability, which is the ability to prove that it results in particular values from any particular argument given a particular theory. Decidability and idempotency are very different from each other, as are determinacy and idempotency. What is the context in which you are seeing "deterministic"? It may mean the same as "idempotent" there. But I do not believe that the terms are commonly or in any general mathematical sense understood to be equivalent.
EDIT: I guess the difficulty is the explanation that "it returns the same result when run repeatedly", which seems to mean the same thing as both "deterministic" and "idempotent". So I guess there is probably a better way to answer this.