This seems to imply that one could follow the algorithm given in the proof of the recursion theorem to create a quine. However, the proof of the recursion theorem (and indeed the recursion theorem itself) only seems to guarantee the existence of a program that outputs its own index, which is, strictly speaking, different from outputing it's source code.
The simple observation that no Turing machine whose tape alphabet consists solely of $0$'s and $1$'s can output its own source code, since its source code is a finite set of tuples, implies that quines cannot exist there. However, it seems likely as long as the alphabet is sufficiently rich (or the language sufficiently limited) it should be possible to write a bona fide quine.
Question 1. Can the proof of the recursion theorem be transformed into a quine in any sufficiently expressive programming language?
Question 2. If the answer to Question 1. is "no", how do we know if and when quines exist?