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Suppose a set of $n$ high-dimensional points is given. It is known that the sum of all pair-wise squared Euclidean distances is proportional to sum of squared distances of all points to the centroid.

However, given a specific point $a$, in what relation is the sum of squared Euclidean distances from $a$ to all other points, and the square Euclidean distance of $a$ from the centroid of all points (including $a$).

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up vote 3 down vote accepted

Since $(x-a)^2=(x-m+m-a)^2=(x-m)^2+(m-a)^2+2(x-m)(m-a)$ and the sum of the last term over all points $x$ vanishes by the definition of the centroid $m$, the sum over the squared distances from $a$ is the sum over the squared distances from the centroid plus $n$ times the square of the distance from $a$ to the centroid. This holds irrespective of whether $a$ is itself one of the points.

See also the parallel axis theorem.

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