How do we know how many branches the inverse function of an elementary function has ? For instance Lambert W function. How do we know how many branches it has at e.g. $z=-0.5$ , $z=0$ , $z=0.5$ or $z=2i$ ?
Suppose your elementary function $f$ is entire and has an essential singularity at $\infty$ (as in the case you mention, with $f(z) = z e^z$). Then Picard's "great" theorem says that $f(z)$ takes on every complex value infinitely often, with at most one exception. Thus for every $w$ with at most one exception, the inverse function will have infinitely many branches at $w$. Determining whether that exception exists (and what it is) may require some work. In this case it is easy: $f(z) = 0$ only for $z=0$ because the exponential function is never $0$, so the exception is $w=0$.