# simpler expression for terminating 3F2 series with negative unit argument

I am hoping to evaluate a simpler expression for the following: $${}_3F_2(-n,1,1; a, (a+3)/2; -1)$$ Here $n,a \in \mathbb{N}$ and $a$ is odd. I am also interested in the asymptotics in $n \in \mathbb{N}$ for fixed $a$. There are numerous transformations for hypergeometric series with unit argument, but I was not able to find any with negative unity as the argument. Considering that two of the parameters in the numerator are unity, I was hoping that a nice expression would be nearby.

I would appreciate if someone can help with references or ideas.

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With $f_n$ denoting the hypergeometric function, it can be checked to satisfy the inhomogeneous rank 2 recurrence equation: $$(n+a+1)\left(n+\frac{a+5}{2}\right)f_{n+2} - 3 (n+2)\left(n+\frac{a+3}{2}\right) f_{n+1} + 2 (n+1)(n+2) f_n = \frac{a^2-1}{2}$$

In[52]:= Table[-(1/2) (a^2 - 1) + (n + a + 1) (n + (a + 3)/2 + 1) y[
n + 2] - 3 (n + 2) (n + (a + 3)/2) y[n + 1] +
2 (n + 1) (n + 2) y[n] /.
y -> Function[k,
HypergeometricPFQ[{-k, 1, 1}, {a, (a + 3)/2}, -1]], {n, 0,
6}] // Together

Out[52]= {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}


From this recurrence equation, using techniques of Birkhoff and Trjitzinsky, "Analytic theory of singular difference equations", Acta Math., 60 (1932), pp. 1–89, one gets: $$f_n = 2^n n^{(1-3a)/2} \left(c_1 + \mathcal{O}\left(n^{-1}\right) \right) + \frac{1}{n} \left(c_2 + \mathcal{O}\left(n^{-1}\right) \right) + \frac{a^2-1}{2} \frac{\log(n)}{n} \left(1 + \mathcal{O}\left(n^{-1}\right) \right)$$

Also note, that for special case of $a=1$, closed-form is easy to find: $$f_n = {}_3F_2\left(-n,1,1; 1,2; -1\right) = {}_2F_1\left(-n,1; 2; -1\right) = \frac{2^{n+1}-1}{n+1}$$

One could also try use the following integral representation for $f_n$, valid for $a>1$: $$f_n = \frac{a+1}{2} \int_0^1 \left(1-t\right)^{(a-1)/2} \cdot {}_2F_1\left(-n, 1; a; -t\right) \mathrm{d} t$$

In[79]:= Table[
Simplify[HypergeometricPFQ[{-n, 1, 1}, {a, (a + 3)/2}, -1] ==
Assuming[
a > 1, ((a + 1)/2)*
Integrate[(1 - t)^((a - 1)/2)*
HypergeometricPFQ[{-n, 1}, {a}, -t], {t, 0, 1}]]], {n, 1, 5}]

Out[79]= {True, True, True, True, True}

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Wow! Thanks @Sasha! I did not know any such techniques were available. Could you suggest a book for the techniques you have employed from Birkoff and Trjitzinsky? – Ankur Sep 19 '12 at 5:14
@Ankur I do not know of such book, which is not to say one does not exist. You could also check Birkoff's article, freely available from JSTOR. – Sasha Sep 19 '12 at 15:24
Could you tell which theorem from Birkoff and Trjitzinsky have you employed here? I went through the paper but unable to find a result that would suit my problem. Also, I think we are in the same town - if that's ok I could you even meet you in person to get your help. – Ankur Sep 21 '12 at 4:18
@Ankur Well, I might have given you not quite the right article reference. See Bikhoff's article, "Formal theory of irregular singular difference equations", Acta Mathematica ( SpringerLink). We are indeed in the same town. Small world. – Sasha Sep 21 '12 at 5:06
@Ankur Since the inhomogeneous recurrence equation reads $g_n = \frac{a^2-1}{2}$, it can be homogenized, as $g_{n+1}-g_n = 0$. This implies order 3 recurrence homogeneous recurrence equation for $f_n$. You can apply similar technique to find the asymptotic behavior of $f_n$. Substitution back into the inhomogeneous system determines relation between two of three free coefficients. I hope this is clear enough. – Sasha Oct 2 '12 at 1:02