I will assume that by geometry you mean two-dimensional Euclidean geometry. A "point" would have two "coordinates", each of them being real numbers. So, if the question really does refer to a "coordinate", that is, one half of a "coordinate pair" defining the location of a point, the answer is "always"; every coordinate is a real number, and so it can be plotted on a one-dimensional number line.
Now, two coordinates, making up a coordinate pair, are both real numbers. As such, any one real number can be paired with any other in this manner, and only the points having coordinates $(x, f(x))$ for a deterministic, continuous $f(x)$ can be plotted along a line (this is what you learned in algebra). The function $f(x)$, in set theory, defines a "bijection" - a method of transformation between elements of two sets, for which every element in the "destination" set can be produced using one and only one element of the "source" set.
It was originally thought that no $f(x)$ existed such that the set of its solutions for all real values of $x$ contained all points in $\mathbb R^2$; equivalently, that no bijection existed mapping all $\mathbb R$ to $\mathbb R^2$ existed. Thus, it was thought that this meant that the set of all two-dimensional points, known in set theory as $\mathbb R^2$, was larger than the set of all real numbers, $\mathbb R$, and specifically that $|\mathbb R^2| = |\mathbb R|^2$.
However, it turns out this is not true. Georg Cantor proved in 1877, using the "set theory" branch of discrete mathematics he helped create, that there are as many points on the unit line segment (basically, as many real numbers between 0 and 1) as there are points in any "finite-dimensional space", including $\mathbb R^2$, by creating just such a bijection. He is famously quoted in a letter to fellow mathematician Richard Dedekind, "I see it, but I don't believe it!". He had previously proven that there are as many real numbers within any finite range as there are real numbers by a similar method. Taking those two together, we can say that $|\mathbb R| = |\mathbb R^2|$, or in plain English, that there are an equal number of numbers on the real number line as there are points in two-dimensional space, and therefore every point in two-dimensional space must be mappable to a single point on the one-dimensional real number line.
As such, the answer, from discrete math, to the question "A coordinate pair can __ be paired with a point on a number line" is also "always".