Just a partial answer... As Qiaochu remarks, the "standard viewpoint" will not change without considerable impetus. The fact that some variant of "Lebesgue" integration is not "perfect" doesn't matter: it is "good enough".
Further, I would claim that, in fact, "the integral" people mostly use is not so much formally defined by any particular set-up, but is characterized, perhaps passively, in a naive-category-theory style (or, those might be my words) by what properties are expected. That is, for many purposes, we truly don't care about the "definition" of "integral", because we know what we expect of "integrals", and we know that people have proven that there are such things that work that way under mild hypotheses...
For all its virtues (in my opinion/taste), this "characterization" approach seems harder for beginners to understand, so the "usual" mathematical education leaves people with definitions...
My own preferred "integral" is what some people call a "weak" integral, or Gelfand-Pettis integral (to give credit where credit is due), characterized by $\lambda(\int_X f(x)\,dx)=\int_X \lambda(f(x))\,dx$ for $V$-valued $f$, for all $\lambda$ in $V^*$, for topological vector space $V$, for measure space $X$. This may seem to beg the question, but wait a moment: when $f$ is continuous, compactly-supported, and $V$ is quasi-complete, locally convex, widely-documented arguments (e.g., my functional analysis notes at my web site) prove existence and uniqueness, granted exactly existence and uniqueness of integrals of continuous, compactly-supported scalar-valued functions on $X$. Thus, whatever sort of integral we care to contrive for the latter will give a Gelfand-Pettis integral.
Well, we can use Lebesgue's construction, or we can cite Riesz' theorem, that every continuous functional on $C^o_c(X)$ (Edit: whose topology is upsetting to many: a colimit of Frechet spaces. But, srsly, it's not so difficult) is given by "an integral" (somewhat as Bourbaki takes as definition).
Either way, we know what we want, after all.
An example of a contrast is the "Bochner/strong" integral, which has the appeal that it emulates Riemann's construction, and, thus, directly engages with traditional ... worries? But, after the dust settles, there is still a bit of work to do to prove that the (as-yet-unspoken) desiderata are obtained.
Further, surprisingly often, in practice, the "weak" integral's characterization proves to be all that one really wants/needs! Who knew? :)