Take the 2-minute tour ×
Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. It's 100% free, no registration required.

Let $l$ be a prime number(even or odd), $n \geq 1$ an interger. Let $\zeta$ be a primitive $l^n$-th root of unity in $\mathbb{C}$. Let $K = \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$.

Is the following proposition true? If yes, how would you prove this?

Proposition The only prime number which ramifies in $K$ is $l$, except $l = 2$ and $n = 1$.

Motivation How a prime number is decomposed in $K$ is fundamental in algebraic number theory. For example, it has a relation with the quadratic reciprocity law.

Effort We consider the case $n = 1$. By the first link below, a prime number $p \neq l$ is unramified. By the third and the fourth link below, $l$ is ramified.

Related question:

Decomposition of a prime number in a cyclotomic field

On the ring generated by an algebraic integer over the ring of rational integer

Special units of the cyclotomic number field of an odd prime order $l$

Decomposition of $l$ in a subfield of a cyclotomic number field of an odd prime order $l$

share|improve this question
    
Yes, the result is correct. Refer to Algebraic Number Theory by Neukirch page 61-63. –  William Jul 26 '12 at 0:32
1  
This is definitely done in Jim Milne's notes, and it should be in any book on algebraic number theory. The proof I've seen uses the third link you gave. –  Dylan Moreland Jul 26 '12 at 0:42
    
@DylanMoreland The third link can be used only for the proof that $l$ is ramified. It cannot be used to show that other prime numbers are unramified. –  Makoto Kato Jul 26 '12 at 3:07
1  
@DylanMorland You know there are several answers to a question. I guess Milne's proof is not the only one. It's nice to have several proofs, here. –  Makoto Kato Jul 27 '12 at 5:50
4  
Please let me know the reason for the downvotes. Unless you make it clear, it's hard to improve my question. –  Makoto Kato Jul 28 '12 at 6:44

1 Answer 1

Notations

We denote by $|S|$ the number of elements of a finite set $S$.

Let $A$ be a ring. We denote by $A^{\times}$ the group of invertible elements of $A$.

Let $f(X) \in \mathbb{Z}[X]$ and $p$ be a prime number. We denote by $\bar f(X)$ the reduction of $f(X)$ (mod $p$).

Fixed symbols

We fix the following symbols.

Let $l$ be a prime number(possibly 2).

Let $h \geq 1$ be an integer.

Let $\zeta$ be a primitive $l^h$-th root of unity in $\mathbb{C}$.

Let $K = \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$.

Lemma 1 Let $\Omega$ be an algebraically closed field of characteristic $p$($p$ may be 0). Suppose $p \neq l$. Let $S$ be the set of roots of $X^{l^h} - 1$ in $\Omega$. Then $S$ is a cyclic subgroup of $\Omega^{\times}$ of order $l^h$. Let $P$ be the set of generators of $S$. Then $|P| = l^{h-1}(l - 1)$. Let $\Phi(X) = \prod_{\omega\in P}(X - \omega)$. Then $\Phi(X) = (x^{l^{h-1}})^{l-1} + (x^{l^{h-1}})^{l-2} +\cdots+ x^{l^{h-1}} + 1$.

Proof: Since $(X^{l^h} - 1)' = l^hX^{l^h-1}$ and $l \neq p$, $X^{l^h} - 1$ has no multiple roots in $\Omega$. Hence $|S| = l^h$. It is well known that $S$ is a cyclic subgroup of $\Omega^{\times}$. Let $P$ be the set of generators of $S$. Then $|P| = l^h - l^{h-1} = l^{h-1}(l - 1)$. $\Phi(X) = (X^{l^h} - 1)/(X^{l^{h-1}} - 1) = (X^{l^{h-1}})^{l-1} + (X^{l^{h-1}})^{l-2} +\cdots+ X^{l^{h-1}} + 1$. QED

Definition $\Phi(X)$ of Lemma 1 is called the cyclotomic polynomial of order $l^h$.

Lemma 2 Let $\zeta', \zeta$ be primitive $l^h$-th roots of unity in $\mathbb{C}$. Then $(1 - \zeta')/(1 - z)$ is a unit of $K$.

Proof: There exists an integer $a \geq 1$ such that $\zeta' = \zeta^a$. Hence $(1 - \zeta')/(1 - \zeta) = \zeta^{a-1} +\cdots+ \zeta + 1$. Hence $(1 - \zeta')/(1 - \zeta)$ is an algebraic integer in $K$. Similarly $(1 - \zeta)/(1 - \zeta')$ is an algebraic integer in $K$. Hence $(1 - \zeta')/(1 - \zeta)$ is a unit of $K$. QED

Lemma 3 The following assertions hold.

(1) The cyclotomic polynomial $\Phi(X)$ of order $l^h$ is irreducible in $\mathbb{Q}[X]$.

(2) $\mathfrak{l} = (1 - \zeta)$ is a prime ideal of degree 1 of $K$.

(3) $l = \mathfrak{l}^{l^{h-1}(l - 1)}$.

Proof: Let $P$ be the set of primitive $l^h$-th roots of unity in $\mathbb{C}$. By Lemma 1, $\Phi(X) = \prod_{\zeta\in P}(X - \zeta) = (X^{l^{h-1}})^{l-1} + (X^{l^{h-1}})^{l-2} +\cdots+ X^{l^{h-1}} + 1$. Substituting $X = 1$, we get $l = \prod_{\zeta\in P}(1 - \zeta)$. By Lemma 2, $(l) = \mathfrak{l}^{l^{h-1}(l - 1)}$, where $\mathfrak{l} = (1 - \zeta)$. This proves (3).

Hence $l^{h-1}(l - 1) \leq [K : \mathbb{Q}]$. On the other hand, since $\Phi(\zeta) = 0$, $[K : \mathbb{Q}] \leq l^{h-1}(l - 1)$. Hence $l^{h-1}(l - 1) = [K : \mathbb{Q}]$. Hence $\Phi(X)$ is irreducible. This proves (1).

Since $[K : \mathbb{Q}] = l^{h-1}(l - 1)$, $\mathfrak{l}$ is a prime ideal of degree 1 by (3). This proves (2). QED

Lemma 4 The notations are the same as Lemma 3.

$(\Phi'(\zeta)) = \mathfrak{l}^{l^{h-1}(h(l - 1) - 1)}$

Proof: $X^{l^h} - 1 = \Phi(X)(X^{l^{h-1}} - 1)$. Taking derivatives of the bothe sides, we get $l^hX^{l^h-1} = \Phi'(X)(X^{l^{h-1}} - 1) + l^{h-1}\Phi(X)X^{l^{h-1}-1}$. Substituting $X = \zeta$, we get $l^h\zeta^{l^h-1} = \Phi'(\zeta)(\zeta^{l^{h-1}} - 1)$.

Since $\zeta^{l^{h-1}}$ is a primitive $l$-th root of unity, $(l) = (\zeta^{l^{h-1}} - 1)^{l-1}$ in $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta^{l^{h-1}})$. Since $(l) = \mathfrak{l}^{l^{h-1}(l - 1)}$ in $K$, $(\zeta^{l^{h-1}} - 1) = \mathfrak{l}^{l^{h-1}}$ in $K$.

Hence $\mathfrak{l}^{hl^{h-1}(l - 1)} = \Phi'(\zeta)\mathfrak{l}^{l^{h-1}}$. Hence $(\Phi'(\zeta)) = \mathfrak{l}^{l^{h-1}(h(l - 1) - 1)}$. QED

Lemma 5

The notations are the same as Lemma 3.

Let $d$ be the discriminant of $\Phi(X)$. Then $|d| = l^{l^{h-1}(h(l - 1) - 1)}$.

Proof: By Lemma 4, $(\Phi'(\zeta)) = \mathfrak{l}^{l^{h-1}(h(l - 1) - 1)}$. Taking the norms of the both sides, we get $|d| = |N_{K/\mathbb{Q}}(\Phi'(\zeta))| = N(\mathfrak{l})^{l^{h-1}(h(l - 1) - 1)}$. Since $N(\mathfrak{l}) = l$, $|d| = l^{l^{h-1}(h(l - 1) - 1)}$. QED

Lemma 6 $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta]$ is the ring of algebraic integers of $K$.

Proof: This follows from Lemma 3, Lemma 5 and the proposition of my answer to this question.

Lemma 7 Let $\Phi(X)$ be the cyclotomic polynomial of order $l^h$ in $\mathbb{Q}[X]$. Let $p$ be a prime number such that $p \neq l$. Let $X^{l^h} - 1 \in \mathbb{Z}[X]$. Since $(X^{l^h} - 1)' = l^hX^{l^h-1}$, $X^{l^h} - 1$ has no multiple irreducible factor mod $p$. Since $X^{l^h} - 1 = \Phi(X)(X^{l^{h-1}} - 1)$, $\Phi(X)$ has no multiple irreducible factor mod $p$. Let $\Phi(X) \equiv f_1(X)\cdots f_r(X)$ (mod $p$), where $f_i(X)$ are distinct monic irreducible polynomials mod $p$. Let $f$ be the smallest positive integer such that $p^f \equiv 1$ (mod $l^h$). Then the degree of each $f_i(X)$ is $f$.

Proof: Let $F = \mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$. Let $\Omega$ be the algebraic closure of $F$. Let $S$ be the set of roots of $X^{l^h} - 1$ in $\Omega$. Since $(X^{l^h} - 1)' = l^hX^{l^h-1}$, $X^{l^h} - 1$ has no multiple roots in $\Omega$. Hence $|S| = l^h$. It is well known that $S$ is a cyclic subgroup of $\Omega^{\times}$. Let $P$ be the set of generators of $S$. $|P| = l^h - l^{h-1} = l^{h-1}(l - 1)$. Let $\bar \Phi(X) = \prod_{\omega\in P}(X - \omega) \in F[X]$. Then $\bar \Phi(X) = (X^{l^{h-1}})^{l-1} + (X^{l^{h-1}})^{l-2} +\cdots+ X^{l^{h-1}} + 1$. Hence $\bar \Phi(X) = \bar f_1(X)\cdots\bar f_r(X)$.

Let $\omega$ be a root of \bar f_i(X) in $\Omega$. Since $\omega$ is a root of $\bar \Phi(X)$, $\omega \in P$. Let $E$ be the unique subfield of $\Omega$ such that $|E| = p^f$. It is well known that $E^{\times}$ is a cyclic group. Since $|E^{\times}| = p^f - 1$ and $l^h|p^f - 1$, $E^{\times}$ has a unique cyclic subgroup of order $l^h$. Hence $\omega \in E$.

Let $L$ be a proper subfiled of $E$. Let $[L : F] = p^r$. Suppose $\omega \in L$. Then $l^h|p^r - 1$, i.e. $p^r \equiv 1$ (mod $l^h$). Since $r < f$, this is a contradiction. Hence $E = F(\omega)$. Hence the minimal polynomial of $\omega$ over $F$ has degree $f$. Since $\bar f_i(X)$ is irreducible, $\bar f_i(X)$ is the minimal polynomial of $\omega$. This completes the proof. QED

Proposition The only prime number which ramifies in $K$ is $l$, except $l = 2$ and $h = 1$.

Proof: By Lemma 3, $l$ ramifies in $K$ except $l = 2$ and $h = 1$.

Let $p$ be a prime number such that $p \neq l$. Let $\Phi(X) \equiv f_1(X)\cdots f_r(X)$ (mod $p$) be as in Lemma 7. By this question, $P_i = (p, f_i(\zeta))$ is a prime ideal of $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta]$ lying over $p\mathbb{Z}$. It is easy to see that $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta]/P_i$ is a finite extension of $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ of degree $f$. By Lemma 6, $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta]$ is the ring of algebraic integers in $K$. It is well known that each $P_i$ has the same ramification index $e$ and $l^{h-1}(l - 1) = efg$, where $g$ is the number of prime ideals of $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta]$ lying over $p\mathbb{Z}$. Since $l^{h-1}(l - 1) = fr$, $r = g$ and $e = 1$. Hence $p$ does not ramify in $K$. This completes the proof. QED

share|improve this answer

Your Answer

 
discard

By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.