# Mahalanobis Distance using Eigen-Values of the Covariance Matrix

Given the formula of Mahalanobis Distance:

$D^2_M = (\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{\mu})^T \mathbf{S}^{-1} (\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{\mu})$

If I simplify the above expression using Eigen-value decomposition (EVD) of the Covariance Matrix:

$S = \mathbf{P} \Lambda \mathbf{P}^T$

Then,

$D^2_M = (\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{\mu})^T \mathbf{P} \Lambda^{-1} \mathbf{P}^T (\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{\mu})$

Let, the projections of $(\mathbf{x}-\mu)$ on all eigen-vectors present in $\mathbf{P}$ be $\mathbf{b}$, then:

$\mathbf{b} = \mathbf{P}^T(\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{\mu})$

And,

$D^2_M = \mathbf{b}^T \Lambda^{-1} \mathbf{b}$

$D^2_M = \sum_i{\frac{b^2_i}{\lambda_i}}$

The problem that I am facing right now is as follows:

The covariance matrix $\mathbf{S}$ is calculated on a dataset, in which no. of observations are less than the no. of variables. This causes some zero-valued eigen-values after EVD of $\mathbf{S}$.

In these cases the above simplified expression does not result in the same Mahalanobis Distance as the original expression, i.e.:

$(\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{\mu})^T \mathbf{S}^{-1} (\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{\mu}) \neq \sum_i{\frac{b^2_i}{\lambda_i}}$ (for non-zero $\lambda_i$)

My question is: Does the simplified expression still functionally represent the Mahalanobis Distance?

P.S.: Motivation to use the simplified expression of Mahalanbis Distance is to calculate its gradient wrt $b$.

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If $S$ has zero as an eigenvalue, how is $S^{-1}$ defined? – Erick Wong Jul 23 '12 at 9:38
This is exactly my question. Rephrased: In the cases where $\mathbf{S}$ is singular, does the simplified expression functionally represent the Mahalanobis distance? – Omer Jul 23 '12 at 10:13

As indicated in Erick's comment, your problem is not that the two calculations yield different results for a singular covariance matrix, but that $\mathbf S$ is singular (and hence not invertible) if some of the eigenvalues are zero, so that neither calculation is well-defined. This is a conceptual problem, not a computational one; the Mahalanobis distance is simply not well-defined in this case.