I'm not sure what's at stake, here, or what question is actually being asked.
In my own mind, I tend to use "minus 5" and "negative 5" interchangeably, and it seems that the shift in usage from the former to the latter is primarily an example of the malleability of language over time. I am 50 years old, and I have seen one usage become "old-fashioned."
There is, however, one instance in which "negative" versus "minus" is clearly superior:
If I say: "Nine, negative five" it is clear I am enumerating two numbers: $9$, $-5$. If I say: "Nine minus five," it is unclear whether I intend $9 - 5$ (that is: $4$), or the list $9$, $-5$.
Historically speaking (and this history is mirrored somewhat in language), subtraction predates the creation of integers. "Minus" comes from the Latin word for "less", and its usage in subtraction reflects this origin. "Negative" comes from the Latin verb "to deny" (and most likely, by extension, to cancel), implying a more sophisticated social structure than our early beginnings.
As mathematical systems have becomes more abstract, it seems logical to me that "negative" is the term more usefully applied to things such as elements of an abelian group (where the operation "+" may bear little resemblance to "adding things"). For example, I would not call the matrix $-A$, "minus A". But that's just "my" personal take on things, and I do not claim to speak for the community at large in any substantial fashion.
I fail to see the point of belaboring terminology, you could call negative numbers "floompsies", as long as you correctly capture their behavior.