# Fréchet mean between points in $\mathbb{R}^3$

Let $X$ be a set of $n$ points in $\mathbb{R}^3$ and $f_m$ be the Fréchet mean, i.e.:

$$f_m= \arg \min_{p \in M} \sum_{i=1}^n w_id^2(p,x_i)$$

where $(\mathbb{R}^3,d)$ is a complete metric space, $d$ a distance function (Euclidean $d_E$, log-Euclidean $d_{log}$, Riemannian $d_R$) between any two points and $w$ a weight function.

$$d_E(x_i,x_j)= \| x_i - x_j\|$$

$$d_{log}(x_i,x_j)= \| \log(x_i) - \log(x_j)\|$$

$$d_R(x_i,x_j)= \| \log(x_i^{-1/2}x_jx_i^{-1/2})\|$$

How could I solve this problem? Maybe by Gradient Descent?

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If the points are in $\mathbb R^3$, what does $(M,d)$ have to do with the problem? –  user31373 Jun 5 '12 at 14:50
You are right. It is $(\mathbb{R}^3,d)$ –  no_name Jun 5 '12 at 15:00
OK, is $d(x,y)$ the Euclidean distance $\sqrt{(x_1-y_1)^2+\dots+(x_n-y_n)^2}$ or someone else? –  user31373 Jun 5 '12 at 15:01
I was vague bacause I would like to analize the differences between Euclidean, log-Euclidean, and Riemannian metric. –  no_name Jun 5 '12 at 15:14
In the case $d=d_E$ you have $f_m=\sum w_i x_i$ (assuming $\sum w_i=1$, which can always be achieved by scaling the weights). Proof: for any $x\in\mathbb R^3$
$$\sum w_i\|x-p_i\|^2 = \sum w_i\|x-f_m+f_m-x_i\|^2 \\= \|x-f_m\|^2 + \sum w_i\|f_m-x_i\|^2 + 2\sum w_i\langle x-f_m, f_m-x_i\rangle$$ In the last term we move summation into the bracket to get $$\sum w_i\langle x-f_m, f_m-x_i\rangle=\langle x-f_m, f_m-\sum w_ix_i\rangle=0$$ Thus, $$\sum w_i\|x-p_i\|^2 =\|x-f_m\|^2+\sum w_i\|f_m-x_i\|^2\ge \sum w_i\|f_m-x_i\|^2$$ QED
Also, if your metric is of the form $d(x,y)=\|\Phi(x)-\Phi(y)\|$ where $\Phi\colon\mathbb R^3\to\mathbb R^3$ is some invertible map, then $f_m=\Phi^{-1}(\sum w_i \Phi(x_i))$.
Thank you. This is pretty reasonable for Euclidean metric. It should be a "weighted" centroid. Could I use the same procedure with $d_{log}$ and $d_R$? –  no_name Jun 6 '12 at 10:30